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F336- aspirin individual Investigation

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Does Temperature Affect The Yield And Purity Of Aspirin? Contents Objectives 1) Research using various sources on aspirin with reference to; history ,use in medicine and methods of synthesis 2) produce a sample of aspirin using a method found during research 3) Verify the presence of aspirin and use various method to measure the purity of the manufactured aspirin 4) Carry out investigation to see if temperature effects the yield and purity of aspirin Research History of aspirin 400 BC, Greece - Hippocrates recommended a brew made from willow leaves to ease the pain of child birth. 1763, England - A reverend called Edward Stone was walking through a meadow in Oxfordshire while suffering from an acute fever. Stone removed a small piece of bark from a willow tree and nibbled on it. He was struck by its extremely bitter taste, as an educated man he knew that he bark from Peruvian cinchona tree (which has a similar taste) is used in the treatment of malarial fevers. He surmised that the willow might also have therapeutic properties. He gathered and dried a pound of willow bark and created a powder which he gave to about fifty people. It was consistently found to be a "powerful astringent and very efficacious in curing agues and intermitting disorders". He had discovered salicylic acid, the active ingredient in aspirin. 1828, Germany- Johann B�chner isolates pure salicin from willow bark. Salicin is the compound in willow bark that relieves pain. The name salicin was derived from salix, which is the Latin word for willow tree. 1853, France- Charles Frederic Gerhardt first synthesizes acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), but he fails to understand its molecular structure and its potential importance to humanity. His acetylsalicylic acid is not pure and therefore of limited use. 1874 Dresden, Germany - Salicylic acid is first made industrially using Kolbe's method in Dresden, Germany. It is sold as a painkiller but, it also caused digestive problems such as gastric irritation, bleeding, diarrhoea, and even death when consumed in high doses. ...read more.

Middle

Twice more to get accurate results 6. I will do this process for all the different concentration of salicylic acid and create a calibration curve 7. I will reset the colourimeter with a cuvette filled with water 8. I will then fill a cuvette with the aspirin sample solution that has been reacted with iron III chloride (forming a pale purple solution) 9. I will then place my cuvette into the colourimeter and note down my readings BELOW IS A DIAGRAM EXPLAINNG HOW THE DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS ARE MADE Follow up investigation Does temperature affect the purity and yield of aspirin? I will carry out the exactly same procedure of aspirin synthesis (Pg.17) as I did when the solutions were made at room temp 20�c I will be make aspirin again at 3 different temperatures: * 10�c * 40�c * 60�c The additional apparatus I will need are: > a water bath -with temperature control > thermometer x2 I will then analyse the aspirin produced from the different temperatures and see using my various analytical method which temperature produces the best yield and the purest sample of aspirin. Results Aspirin synthesis Results Below is a table which shows the yield of aspirin powder produced at different temperatures Temperature when manufactured /�c Yield/g 10 7.83 20 10.90 40 12.18 60 5.18 Thin layer chromatography Results I did thin layer chromatography on all of the samples of aspirin I produced First I did thin layer chromatography on pure aspirin and salicylic acid Rf values use To get the Rf value you this equation Rf value of salicylic acid = = 0.64 Rf value of aspirin = = 0.46 Below are the Rf values of our manufactures aspirin * Rf value of aspirin manufactured at 10�c = = 0.45 = could be aspirin = 0.6.1 = could be salicylic acid * Rf value of aspirin manufactured at 20�c (room temp) ...read more.

Conclusion

* The colorimeter could have been faulty or calibrated wrongly therefore giving me invalid results Titration * I may have contaminated my solutions as I was diluting several different, colourless solution to make up the concentrations I needed * Judgement of end point may be wrong * I May not have put in enough NaOH at the beginning to fully hydrolyse the aspirin * The hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide may not have been pure to begin as several other students were using it as me therefore giving be invalid result Equipment error Aspirin synthesis The equipment I used during aspirin synthesis equipment Eq error A 2 d.p.balance 0.01 20 cm3 measuring cylinder 0.3 10 cm3 measuring cylinder 0.5 Level uncertainly with the mass of salicylic acid Level Uncertainty with the volume of Ethanoic anhydride Level of uncertainty of the volume of sulphuric acid Total level of uncertainty is 28% Colourimetry - standard solutions The equipment I used for Colourimetry: equipment Eq error /cm3 A 2 d.p.balance 0.01 50 cm3 pipette 0.06 10 cm3 pipette 0.1 100cm3 volumetric flask 0.08 Level Uncertainty with the mass of salicylic acid Level of uncertainty of a 10 cm3 pipette - I used the graduated pipette 7 times so that brings my total percentage error using a 10 cm3 pipette to 7% Level of uncertainty of a 50 cm3 pipette Level of uncertainty of a 100cm3 volumetric flask 0.08% I used nine, 100 cm3 volumetric flasks so my total error using 100 cm3 volumetric flasks is 0.72% Total level of uncertainty of creating my standard solution = 8.4% Titration Equipment used equipment Eq error /cm3 A 2 d.p.balance 0.01 25 cm3 pipette 0.04 50 cm3 burette 0.05 250cm3 volumetric flask 0.08 Level Uncertainty with the mass of aspirin Level of uncertainty with the volume of sodium hydroxide using a 25 cm3 pipette Level of uncertainty of a 100cm3 volumetric flask 0. ...read more.

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