• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16
  17. 17
    17
  18. 18
    18
  19. 19
    19
  20. 20
    20
  21. 21
    21
  22. 22
    22
  23. 23
    23
  24. 24
    24
  25. 25
    25
  26. 26
    26
  27. 27
    27
  28. 28
    28
  29. 29
    29
  30. 30
    30
  31. 31
    31
  32. 32
    32
  33. 33
    33
  34. 34
    34
  35. 35
    35
  36. 36
    36
  37. 37
    37
  38. 38
    38
  39. 39
    39
  40. 40
    40
  41. 41
    41
  42. 42
    42
  43. 43
    43
  44. 44
    44
  45. 45
    45
  46. 46
    46
  47. 47
    47
  48. 48
    48
  49. 49
    49
  50. 50
    50
  51. 51
    51
  52. 52
    52
  53. 53
    53
  54. 54
    54
  55. 55
    55
  56. 56
    56
  57. 57
    57
  58. 58
    58
  59. 59
    59
  60. 60
    60
  61. 61
    61
  62. 62
    62
  63. 63
    63
  64. 64
    64
  65. 65
    65
  66. 66
    66
  67. 67
    67
  68. 68
    68
  69. 69
    69
  70. 70
    70
  71. 71
    71
  72. 72
    72
  73. 73
    73

F336- aspirin individual Investigation

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Does Temperature Affect The Yield And Purity Of Aspirin? Contents Objectives 1) Research using various sources on aspirin with reference to; history ,use in medicine and methods of synthesis 2) produce a sample of aspirin using a method found during research 3) Verify the presence of aspirin and use various method to measure the purity of the manufactured aspirin 4) Carry out investigation to see if temperature effects the yield and purity of aspirin Research History of aspirin 400 BC, Greece - Hippocrates recommended a brew made from willow leaves to ease the pain of child birth. 1763, England - A reverend called Edward Stone was walking through a meadow in Oxfordshire while suffering from an acute fever. Stone removed a small piece of bark from a willow tree and nibbled on it. He was struck by its extremely bitter taste, as an educated man he knew that he bark from Peruvian cinchona tree (which has a similar taste) is used in the treatment of malarial fevers. He surmised that the willow might also have therapeutic properties. He gathered and dried a pound of willow bark and created a powder which he gave to about fifty people. It was consistently found to be a "powerful astringent and very efficacious in curing agues and intermitting disorders". He had discovered salicylic acid, the active ingredient in aspirin. 1828, Germany- Johann B�chner isolates pure salicin from willow bark. Salicin is the compound in willow bark that relieves pain. The name salicin was derived from salix, which is the Latin word for willow tree. 1853, France- Charles Frederic Gerhardt first synthesizes acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), but he fails to understand its molecular structure and its potential importance to humanity. His acetylsalicylic acid is not pure and therefore of limited use. 1874 Dresden, Germany - Salicylic acid is first made industrially using Kolbe's method in Dresden, Germany. It is sold as a painkiller but, it also caused digestive problems such as gastric irritation, bleeding, diarrhoea, and even death when consumed in high doses. ...read more.

Middle

Twice more to get accurate results 6. I will do this process for all the different concentration of salicylic acid and create a calibration curve 7. I will reset the colourimeter with a cuvette filled with water 8. I will then fill a cuvette with the aspirin sample solution that has been reacted with iron III chloride (forming a pale purple solution) 9. I will then place my cuvette into the colourimeter and note down my readings BELOW IS A DIAGRAM EXPLAINNG HOW THE DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS ARE MADE Follow up investigation Does temperature affect the purity and yield of aspirin? I will carry out the exactly same procedure of aspirin synthesis (Pg.17) as I did when the solutions were made at room temp 20�c I will be make aspirin again at 3 different temperatures: * 10�c * 40�c * 60�c The additional apparatus I will need are: > a water bath -with temperature control > thermometer x2 I will then analyse the aspirin produced from the different temperatures and see using my various analytical method which temperature produces the best yield and the purest sample of aspirin. Results Aspirin synthesis Results Below is a table which shows the yield of aspirin powder produced at different temperatures Temperature when manufactured /�c Yield/g 10 7.83 20 10.90 40 12.18 60 5.18 Thin layer chromatography Results I did thin layer chromatography on all of the samples of aspirin I produced First I did thin layer chromatography on pure aspirin and salicylic acid Rf values use To get the Rf value you this equation Rf value of salicylic acid = = 0.64 Rf value of aspirin = = 0.46 Below are the Rf values of our manufactures aspirin * Rf value of aspirin manufactured at 10�c = = 0.45 = could be aspirin = 0.6.1 = could be salicylic acid * Rf value of aspirin manufactured at 20�c (room temp) ...read more.

Conclusion

* The colorimeter could have been faulty or calibrated wrongly therefore giving me invalid results Titration * I may have contaminated my solutions as I was diluting several different, colourless solution to make up the concentrations I needed * Judgement of end point may be wrong * I May not have put in enough NaOH at the beginning to fully hydrolyse the aspirin * The hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide may not have been pure to begin as several other students were using it as me therefore giving be invalid result Equipment error Aspirin synthesis The equipment I used during aspirin synthesis equipment Eq error A 2 d.p.balance 0.01 20 cm3 measuring cylinder 0.3 10 cm3 measuring cylinder 0.5 Level uncertainly with the mass of salicylic acid Level Uncertainty with the volume of Ethanoic anhydride Level of uncertainty of the volume of sulphuric acid Total level of uncertainty is 28% Colourimetry - standard solutions The equipment I used for Colourimetry: equipment Eq error /cm3 A 2 d.p.balance 0.01 50 cm3 pipette 0.06 10 cm3 pipette 0.1 100cm3 volumetric flask 0.08 Level Uncertainty with the mass of salicylic acid Level of uncertainty of a 10 cm3 pipette - I used the graduated pipette 7 times so that brings my total percentage error using a 10 cm3 pipette to 7% Level of uncertainty of a 50 cm3 pipette Level of uncertainty of a 100cm3 volumetric flask 0.08% I used nine, 100 cm3 volumetric flasks so my total error using 100 cm3 volumetric flasks is 0.72% Total level of uncertainty of creating my standard solution = 8.4% Titration Equipment used equipment Eq error /cm3 A 2 d.p.balance 0.01 25 cm3 pipette 0.04 50 cm3 burette 0.05 250cm3 volumetric flask 0.08 Level Uncertainty with the mass of aspirin Level of uncertainty with the volume of sodium hydroxide using a 25 cm3 pipette Level of uncertainty of a 100cm3 volumetric flask 0. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Organic Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Experiment to determine the ethanol content of wine

    5 star(s)

    * Glass Funnel Calibrating the pH meter In order to calibrate the pH meter, a pH 7 buffer solution had to be made up. This was done by first measuring 100cm3 of deionised water using a measuring cylinder. Then a pH 7 buffer table was placed in this water and allowed to fully dissolve.

  2. Peer reviewed

    The Synthesis Of Phenacetin From p-Acetamidophenol

    5 star(s)

    This gives an uncertainty of +0.005cm3. An unusual high yield could have been obtained due to the product not being filtered properly and filtrate being present in the pure crystals increasing the mass of the crystals.

  1. Peer reviewed

    Making Aspirin

    5 star(s)

    2. Then we pour both solutions in a beaker provided. 3. After that we stirred the solutions with a glass rod for two minutes. 4. Then we weight an empty filter paper and recorded its mass which is 0.1425 g. 5.

  2. Free essay

    Experiment to determine the order of the reaction of Iodine with Acetone by using ...

    Analysis: From the table, it was noticed that the amount of sodium thiosulphate solution used is directly proportional to the concentration of the remaining iodine. The slope of graph 1 equals to the negative value of the rate of reaction, it implies that iodine concentration drops at a uniform rate.

  1. Finding the concentration of oxalic acid in a mixture with sulphuric acid

    Record in the table. 7) Repeat step 7) until two concordant results have been collected. Diagram: Example of table: START FINISH TITRE ROUGH ACCURATE(1) ACCURATE(2) The mean titre will be the volume of potassium permanganate used and the concentration of the oxalic acid can now be found.

  2. Synthesis of Aspirin

    flammable Keep away from flames Corrosive Avoid skin contact, wear gloves Gives off fumes Avoid inhaling fumes Salicylic acid (2) Toxic, irritant Avoid skin contact, wear gloves May be mutagenic Avoid inhaling dust or fumes Aspirin (3) Toxic, harmful Do not ingest ethanol Flammable liquid Keep away from flames

  1. The preparation of cyclohexene from cyclohexanol

    The temperature at which either has been distilled off. If the thermometer bulb is pushed too low of the position as indicated, it cannot register the temperature of the vapour coming out. - Addition reaction is that two substances react to form a single substance. A double or triple bond is usually found in one of the reactants.

  2. Aspirin Research Project

    and water. http://www.drugfuture.com/Pharmacopoeia/USP32/pub/data/images/v32270/cas-54-21-7.gif http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/content/dam/sigma-aldrich/structure1/180/mfcd00002430.eps/_jcr_content/renditions/mfcd00002430-medium.png + NaHCO3 ? + CO2 + H2O C9H8O4 + NaHCO3 ? C9H7NaO4 + CO2 + H2O + ? + + (Aus-e-tute, 2013) C:\Users\jimmy\Downloads\13148463_1074591792600041_117913831_o.jpg Social and Environmental Perspectives Aspirin is a fundamental drug in society as it reduces pain, fever and inflammation (Flower, 2003).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work