• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Genetic Engineering - a laboratory technique used by scientists to change the DNA of living organisms

Extracts from this document...


Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering is a creation of the 20th century. It is a laboratory technique used by scientists to change the DNA of living organisms. Before the 20th century, people knew that living organisms resembled their parents but they had little idea why. However over the years genetics has become extremely useful. For example geneticists have created plants that produce their own pesticides, cattle that make human milk hormones and bacteria that churns out lifesaving drugs. They have also treated a human disease by altering genes. Geneticists concentrate on learning how genes work. Today- some scientists are engaged in the biggest gene study project of all: the Human Genome Project, it's an attempt to read the coded message in each of the human's 100,000 genes. ...read more.


Side effects- geneticists are experimenting with very delicate, yet powerful forces of nature, without full knowledge of the aftermath. They don't know enough about living systems to perform DNA surgery without creating mutations, which could be harmful to the environment and our health. Widespread crop failure- when a farmer plants genetically engineered seeds, all the seeds will have identical genetic structure. As a result, if a fungus or virus attacks the crop, there will widespread crop failure. Genetics, furthermore, has a large number of health hazards. It can produce unexpected mutations in an organism, which can then produce a higher level of toxins in food. G.E. ...read more.


QUOTE: "Once we decide to begin the process of human genetic engineering, there really is no logical place to stop. If diabetes, sickle-cell disease and cancer are to be cured by altering the genetic makeup of an individual, why not proceed to other "disorders": myopia, colour blindness, left handedness. Indeed, what is to preclude a society from deciding that a certain skin colour is a disorder.?" The story of the great discoveries of genetics and genetic engineering is inspiring in itself. It shows men and women using patience and creativity to unravel one of the central mysteries of life. In addition, it offers hints about way that power given by this new knowledge maybe used- and perhaps misused- in the years ahead. This is an issue that deeply concerns us all. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher


    4 star(s)

    Coping strategies Bipolar disorder: Key recovery concepts - Hope. With good symptom management, it is possible to experience long periods of wellness. Believing that you can cope with your mood disorder is both accurate and essential to recovery. - Perspective. Depression and manic-depression often follow cyclical patterns. Although you may go through some painful times and it may be

  2. Chromosomes and DNA

    * Energy always decreases from one trophic level to the next. * Not all the energy at one trophic level is absorbed by the next one. * Not all the energy taken in by an animal can be digested - some is excreted.

  1. A controversial issue of the twenty-first century is the possible application of new techniques ...

    These genes direct these organisms to produce a specific protein. The proteins can then be removed from the hosts, purified and used. For example, some diabetics are missing the gene for the production of insulin. Human DNA responsible for the production of insulin can be combined with the DNA of a virus, which is known to infect the bacterium, E.Coli.

  2. Genetically engineered vaccines.

    depending on where the transgenes become inserted. � No control of changes in gene expression patterns for the inserted or the endogenous genes of the GMO. � No control of whether the inserted transgene(s), or parts thereof, move within or from the recipient genome, or where transferred DNA sequences end up in the ecosystems.

  1. Recombinant DNA, genetically engineered DNA prepared in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and ...

    However, one procedure merits mention. Before an amino acid can be assembled into a polypeptide chain, it must first be modified to a so-called acyl amino acid, which is more reactive than an unmodified one. This important acyl conversion is powered by the energy stored in a molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

  2. Cell Theory - Discuss the theory that living organisms are composed of cells.

    1.3.4 Describe three differences between plant and animal cells Plant Animal large central vacuole small individual vacuoles cell wall no cell wall chloroplasts no chloroplasts no lysosomes lysosomes no centrioles centrioles 1.3.5 Stat the composition and function of the plant cell wall * primary cell wall - cellulose microfibrils for

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work