• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Green Chemistry - greenhouse gases and the ozone layer

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The 'Greenhouse effect' ? The greenhouse effect keeps us warm ? But, the enhanced greenhouse effect is responsible for global warming. Infrared radiation comes into the atmosphere and gets absorbed by the C=O, O-H and C-H bonds in H2O, CH4 and CO2. They vibrate gaining EK, which is dispersed, warming the Earth's surface. The greenhouse effect of a given gas is dependent on the: ? Concentration in the atmosphere (High CO2 etc) ? The ability to absorb infrared radiation (i.e. the bonding in it) The IPCC (bunch of chemists) collects evidence to force governments to stop producing so much CO2. Scientists should research ways in which global warming can be reduced ? Carbon-Capture and Storage (CCS)- This involves converting CO2 into liquid form. This liquid can be injected deep underground. ? Also reaction with metal oxides to form carbonates. (Magnesium Oxide) MO(s) + CO2(g) --> MCO3(s) ? The Kyoto Protocol was signed by developed nations governments to reduce output of greenhouse gasses to offset the progress of global warming. The scheme involved using carbon credits which can be traded around to penalise polluting nations. Some nations (Australia, USA (Obama)) ...read more.

Middle

Hence less protection for us. Oh no! Air pollution Air pollution offers a more direct threat to us, rather than long-term climate change. Infrared Spectroscopy is used to measure air pollution. A sample of air is drawn into the spectrometer. A beam of infrared radiation of a certain frequency is passed through the sample. Any CO present will absorb this CO. A control reading is taken with 'normal' air and compared. ? Burning hydrocarbons in fuels will produce carbon dioxide. If oxygen is not present, incomplete combustion will occur a and CO will be produced. (It is toxic and combines with the red blood cells in the body instead of oxygen) ? Some hydrocarbons don't get burnt and escape unchanged. They are toxic. ? Oxides of nitrogen are formed as the N = N bond from N2 in the air breaks in the hot engine. Oxides of nitrogen can cause smog and acid rain. Exactly like the aircraft example in the atmosphere; N2 + O2 --> 2NO - These oxides of nitrogen contribute to SMOG and ACID RAIN. ...read more.

Conclusion

Most of the time, the products are recycled in a new industry. - Addition reactions have a high atom economy and substitution reactions don't. Hence it is better to use addition reactions. - The number of steps should be kept down, as this often minimises production of waste materials and increases percentage yield. - Catalysts are pretty awesome. They improve the atom economy and (think enthalpy) make it so the yield is the same for a lower temperature which reduces cost to the manufacturer and reduces demand for energy which is from fossil fuels. ? Chemicals should be as non-toxic as possible. For example lead was used in paint but it had nasty effects on your health, so lead-free compounds are used instead ? Some foams in fire extinguishers leave hazardous products behind including CFC's (-->? Cl*). Alternatives are available. ? Dry cleaners use a solvent based on chlorinated hydrocarbons, but they are carcinogenic. Safer alternatives are now available. ? Ethanol and Methanol can be used for fuels. Already, they are mixed with normal petrol in the UK. They can be derived (Fermentation > Steam hydration) from plant matter/Vegetable oil which is renewable. It is cleaner than petrol. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

3 star(s)

This report covers a lot of chemistry, including most of the key reactions that you will need to know for AS exams. The layout is somewhat confusing, however, with unnecessary pictures blocking some of the writing.
This piece of work is 3*

Marked by teacher Brady Smith 30/11/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Organic Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Experiment to determine the ethanol content of wine

    5 star(s)

    To calibrate the pH meter, a pH 7 solution was made up using a pH 7 buffer tablet and deionised water then the instructions for the pH meter were followed carefully in order to calibrate it. Procedure Chemicals * Deionised water * Ethanol * 3 white wines from different regions

  2. Free essay

    Experiment to determine the order of the reaction of Iodine with Acetone by using ...

    are abandoned because of its great deviation form the estimated value. With the rate of reaction increases with increasing volume of acetone together with a straight line passing through origin, the reaction of iodine with acetone is in first order with respect to acetone.

  1. Milk Production

    Since soy gives off many nutrients and strength. Each cow is usually milked around two times a day. Sometimes this number can be reached to 3 times per day, if the cow is a high producing cow. A usually length of 5 minutes is required for the completion of the milking of one cow.

  2. The aim of this investigation is to analyse mummion, which is an inorganic solid ...

    After this, there should be a instant colour change Annion Test: Results: Flame test: Flame test was carried out to define what cation was present in the mummion crystals. The colour of flame that we got was of yellow/orange, by looking at this I could say that chloride was present in the mummion.

  1. Find the enthalpy change of combustion of a number of alcohol's' so that you ...

    There is a danger of very serious irreversible effects though inhalation, in contact with the skin and if swallowed. If swallowed: Wash out mouth and give a glass or two of water. Seek medical attention if victim shows drunken symptoms. If vapour inhaled: Remove victim to fresh air to rest.

  2. The Importance of Functional Groups and Isomerism in Organic Molecules

    The displayed formulae for Methoxy methane The uses for Methoxy methane Unlike ethanol, methoxy methane is a colourless gas; therefore its functions differ from those of ethanol. Some of them are as follows: * A refrigerant * A co-blowing agent for foam * A propellant for aerosol products * A

  1. Oxidation of Ethanol

    This proves that the reaction was exothermic. * After all of the sodium dichromate was added to the sulphuric acid I noticed that the bubbling ceased as the reaction inevitably stopped. Boiling under Reflux * After I had made the ethanol I closed the tap on the dropping funnel so

  2. Investigating the Enthalpy Changes of Combustion of Alcohols.

    of carbons increases (or as the molar mass increases). Positive correlation between the enthalpy of combustion and molar mass can be seen on the graph. The relationship seems to be directly proportional. As shown above (in the "PREDICTION" section), the increase in the enthalpy of combustion (when the ?

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work