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How temperature effects the rate of reaction

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Aim: To investigate the affect temperature had upon tha rate at which the reaction takes place. Hypothesis: An increase in temperature will result in an increase in the rate of a Chemical reaction. "Rate of Reaction" means how fast the reaction is taking place and can be measured by the rate of formation of the product. Importance of Rate of reaction knowledge: * The faster a reaction can take place the more economic better. * Important in heath and safety whereby this knowledge prevent some fine powders being chemically used in industry as they create a large surface area which can potentially cause explosions. There are six main factors that can affect the rate of a chemical reaction: * Surface area * Concentration * Catalyst * Pressure * PH * Temperature * Surface Area: Surface Area also affects the rate of reaction. The more surface area exposed, the faster the rate of reaction. This is as if a solid is cut into small pieces more surface area is exposed, therefore there are more collisions of particles per minute resulting in less time taken and hence a faster rate of reaction. ...read more.


They do this by helping bonds between atoms to break and form more easily. The particles need less energy to react, so the reaction proceeds more quickly. Catalysts also provide an alternative route for the reaction with lower activation energy. * Pressure: If one or more of the reactants is a gas then increasing pressure will result in an increase in the concentration. This will consequently lead to an increase in the rate of a reaction as there are more fruitful collisions taking place. * PH: The PH conditions can also affect the rate of a reaction. The structure of the protein enzyme can be affected by how acid or alkaline the reaction medium is. If there are extremes of PH than the enzyme can denature. This is due to the ionization of the substrates or of amino acid residues within the enzyme. If the enzyme changes shapes it cannot lock into the substrate molecule. * Temperature: Temperature is a factor that affects the rate of reaction. ...read more.


(Activation enthalpy)Any factor which increases the number of collisions will increase the rate of reaction. As particles approach and collide, Kinetic energy is converted to Potential Energy and the Potential energy of reactants rises. Activation energy is the minimum energy required before a reaction can occur. If the particles collide with less energy than the activation energy, no reaction will occur; this is as the activation energy is seen as a barrier to overcome for the reaction to take place. Collision will only occur when if the energies are equal or greater than that of the activation energy. Chemical reaction occur when there is a breakage of bonds releasing energy and when bonds are formed, taking energy. Activation energy participates with breaking and forming these bonds. This can be seen from an energy profile graph: In the above exothermic reaction, existing bonds start to stretch and break and new bonds form. Only Reactants with sufficient Kinetic energy will overcome the activation enthalpy and form products. At higher temperatures, more of the colliding particles have enough energy to react, resulting in more product formation at that time. ...read more.

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