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How temperature will affect the respiration of an organism.

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Introduction

How temperature will affect the respiration of an organism. Kathryn Hinchcliffe. Aim: The respiratory rate of an organism is usually the same as the rate of aerobic respiration, which takes place within the body tissue. The chemical equation for this is can be shown as, C6H12O6 + 602 6CO2 + 6H2O. I will be estimating the respiratory rates of the organisms using a respirometer and express me results by the amount of oxygen used up in a given time by 1 gram of the tissue held at a constant temperature. Hypothesis: I expect the rate of respiration of the organisms to increase as temperature increases. Prediction: Respiration, is a process by which an organism exchanges gases with its environment. The term now refers to the overall process by which oxygen is abstracted from air and is transported to the cells for the oxidation of organic molecules while carbon dioxide and water, the products of oxidation, are returned to the environment. In single-celled organisms, gas exchange occurs directly between cell and environment, i.e., at the cell membrane. In plants, gas exchange with the environment occurs in special organs, the stomata's, found mostly in the leaves. Organisms that utilise respiration to obtain energy are aerobic, or oxygen-dependent. Some organisms can live in the absence of oxygen and obtain energy from fuel molecules solely by fermentation or glycolysis. These anaerobic processes are much less efficient, since the fuel molecules are merely converted to end products such as lactic acid and ethanol, with relatively little energy-rich ATP produced during these conversions. When our body temperature increases or we do exercise our muscles use more oxygen and produce more carbon dioxide. ...read more.

Middle

In a process called oxidative phosphorylation, each electron transport enzyme is in turn reduced (receives the hydride ion), then oxidised (donates a hydride ion to the next enzyme in the series), and the chemical energy liberated in this series of reactions is coupled to the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and phosphoric acid. ATP, the cell's form of energy storage and supply, furnishes the chemical energy needed for muscle contraction, protein synthesis, and active transport of substances across membranes, and electrical impulses. At the end of the electron transport chain, a hydride ion is donated to an atom of oxygen; this pair, together with a proton from the surrounding solution, forms a molecule of water. Thus, in the overall process of cellular respiration, the fuel molecules are convert to carbon dioxide and water while the chemical energy gained is trapped in a useful form as ATP. For this experiment I have decided to study the respiration of insects rather than humans as insects do not respire in such large quantities as humans do and so it will be easier to measure the oxygen intake over a longer period of time. Particle theory dictates that increasing the temperature provides kinetic energy to all molecules so causing them to move more quickly so react more often, so enzyme activity increases and the Q10 theory states that increasing the temperature by 10�C should double enzyme activity. Considering that enzyme activity is directly linked to the rate of respiration it can be assured that increasing the temperature by 10�C should lead to the doubling of the respiration rate if the Q10 theory is to be observed. ...read more.

Conclusion

I carried out the experiment four times before taking the average. This was to expel any anomalous results, which could have been obtained due to a mistake in the apparatus being put up wrongly, or because of error in reading the result. With the averages I then drew up a graph which allowed me to compare my averaged results easily. Analysis: The basic overall conclusion that can be drawn is that there is a positive correlation between the increase in temperature and the rate of respiration and that this increase is proportional as the graph of average respiration rates is roughly follows a straight line. This increase was hypothesised as a rise in temperature provides enzymes kinetic energy to metabolise at a faster rate so use oxygen up more quickly. However there are a few slight anomalous results. For both 20 C and 40 C all results I obtained over the different temperatures were bellow the line of best fit. The reason for this could be because each time I started the experiment I didn't leave the boiling tube in the water long enough to equilibrate. I left it for about 3 minutes, though I didn't time this, so it may have been for a longer or for a shorter time. At the end of the experiment, both 5 C, 10 C, 15 C, and 30 C all ended above their line of best fit. This could be because The Q10 theory was not upheld by the results as increases in temperature by 10�C did not lead to doubling the respiration rate, instead it seemed to triple. ...read more.

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