• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Hypertension Silent Killer. What is the most effective treatment in lowering high blood pressure?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Tanbir Islam 12AS2 Hypertension What is the most effective treatment in lowering high blood pressure? The Problem Research has shown that high blood pressure is the main cause of Strokes and Coronary Heart Disease. It is of the most common disorders in the UK; this can be supported by many sources such as www.nhs.uk. Hypertension is regarded as a silent killer in many developed countries as statistics show; the ?2008 overall death rate from HBP was 18.3%. Death rates were 16.5% for white males, 50.3% for black males, 15.3% for Hispanic males, 13.1% for American Indian/Alaska Native males and 14.5% for Asian/Pacific Islander males?. (http://www.heart.org/idc/groups/heart-public/@wcm/@sop/@smd/documents/downloadable/ucm_319573.pdf) Hypertension elevates the blood pressure in the arteries; which damages the artery wall by the high blood pressure exerting an extra strain on the endothelium layer. This causes an inflammatory response as the white blood cells move into the artery wall and accumulate cholesterol from the blood. The cholesterol builds up which lead to the formation of an atheroma, there is also a build up of calcium salts and fibres at the site which lead to a plaque formation on the inner wall of the artery. ...read more.

Middle

(www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11130523) Figure 2 The graph shows a positive effect of ACE inhibitors and calcium antagonist has on strokes, coronary heart disease and major cardiovascular diseases; ACE inhibitors had a risk reduction of stroke by 30% and coronary heart disease by 20% while Calcium antagonist had a greater risk reduction of strokes by 39% and any major cardiovascular disease by 28%. This indicates antihypertensive drugs a more effective treatment and more favourable as they provide additional benefits to patients and have greater risk reduction in strokes, coronary heart disease and major cardiovascular diseases. Ethical, Economic & Social Issues Hypertension occurs more in developing countries such as: India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. Government in third world countries should develop comprehensive local programmes to promote healthy eating and exercise. This is one of the most prominent ways of preventing hypertension as the general public are aware of how to prevent themselves of getting hypertension by acknowledging how much salt to intake, to exercise on a regular basis and maintain a healthy weight. One ethical issue is regarding drug trials on humans. Drug testing on humans is considered morally wrong as it breaches many ethical guidelines for example: right to withdraw and deception when considering placebo based drug trials. ...read more.

Conclusion

This data is supported by many health organisations such as; National Health Service and American Heart Association. I can put a degree of trust in the information, as I have confirmed the validity of the data by comparing the information with other sources to see if it is reliable. Exercising on a regular basis helps to lower blood pressure by strengthening the heart and the cardiovascular system. Exercising helps to reduce stress, as stress is a major cause of hypertension. Exercising also helps to reduce weight loss which gives the person an ideal healthy weight to control their blood pressure. A study on ?10 269 male Harvard graduates aged between 45 and 84 showed that the men who increased their levels of physical activity had a 23% lower mortality after 20 years than their peers who did not exercise?. (Edexcel AS Biology Student Book) Radiotherapy New research has shown ?directing short bursts of radio waves at nerves surrounding the kidney? which helps to lower blood pressure for a period between 6 months to a year. This type of treatment is used for people who failed to response to antihypertensive drugs. Using radiotherapy can cause side effects such as: tiredness, sore skin, and diarrhea etc. (http://newsroom.heart. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    MENTAL HEALTH

    4 star(s)

    During the individual's manic phase of bipolar disorder, you may feel very happy and have lots of ambitious plans and ideas. The individual may spend large amounts of money on things that they cannot afford. They may often feel like not eating or sleeping, may speak in a quick pace

  2. The Biology of Autistic Spectrum Disorder and the Social Implications

    that the exact causes of ASD are still unknown, even though some research has shown that a faulty gene may be involved, which could have been inherited from one or both parents. ASD is also a condition that will continue throughout life, though there is some evidence to suggest that

  1. Parkinsons Disease

    Most also need to be taken daily for the remainder of a patients lifetime. Many drugs may have minor side affects. Some side affects have social impacts such as mood swings or may not allow the user to fly or travel to certain places.

  2. Investigating what effect varying the concentration of copper sulphate has on the enzyme Catalase ...

    to compete with. Evaluation I believe that the suitability of my method was good as the majority of the data collected demonstrated the correct trend; the correct trend being what I predicted in my hypothesis. The method was also suitable to the conditions I was under as the data needed

  1. HSC maintaining a balance notes

    Bred plants for over two years for true breeding (homozygous) - height, seed shape 2. Crossed pure breeding with alternative form of each trait - monohybrid cross, F1 Gen. 3. F1: t x s = t - did not blend, suggested one factor was dominant for each trait 4.

  2. Defense in the blood

    Upon duplication of the gene for the enzyme, the duplicate loses several of the properties, resulting in a two-component cascade. Repetition of the scenario builds cascades with more components. Although intriguing, the scenario starts with a complex, unjustified situation (the enzyme with multiple abilities) that already has all necessary activities.

  1. Investigating the effect of trampling on salt marsh

    * Soil samples from Non-trampled (Area 1) and Trampled area (Area 2) was obtained using an trowel, collected in a bag and the following tests were performed back at school- o To measure Salinity of the samples- Firstly, the soil sample has to be dried out; small sample is weighted into an evaporating dish and then put in an oven (90�C).

  2. A study into the effectiveness of Hydroxycarbamide (Hydroxyurea) in treating the complications caused by ...

    Due to the fragile nature of the sickle red blood cells, they can break up and clog up blood vessels, causing nearby tissue to become starved of oxygen in episodes known as a ?sickle cell crises. These crises? can cause moderate pain and in severe cases, caused by lack of

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work