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Identification of an Unknown Organic Compound

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Introduction

Identification of an Unknown Organic Compound The aim of this coursework is to outline a sequence of simple chemical tests that can be used to identify the unknown organic compound. The unknown organic compound could contain any one of the following functional groups: * Alkene * Primary Alcohol * Tertiary Alcohol * Aldehyde * Ketone * Carboxylic Acid * Ester * Phenol I will be listing all the tests in order and under each test, I will state the apparatus, chemicals needed for that test along with the method, the quantities of the chemicals, the observations for a positive result and any safety precautions regarding the test. The general safety and hazards are listed at the end which applies to all of the tests. I am also going to produce a flow chart which gives a clear outline of each test and what that tests determines. The flow chart summarising all these tests is included at the end. Test 1 - Phosphorus Pentachloride: This test gives a positive result if a hydroxyl group (OH) is present. It's a Positive test for Alcohols, Phenols and Carboxylic Acid.i Apparatus and Chemicals list: * Test Tube * Test tube rack * 3cm3 Pipette * 10cm3 Measuring Cylinder * Spatula * Weighing boat * Weighing Scale * Solid Phosphorus Pentachloride * Acetone * Damp Blue Litmus paper Method and Observations: If the unknown compound is in a solid state then using the weighing boat and weighing scale, weigh approx. 0.50g of the compound and add it into a test tube. ...read more.

Middle

Safety and Hazards: * Methanol is toxic and highly flammable. Make sure it's kept away from any source of ignition. Do not inhale or ingest as it can cause serious harm and could even be fatal. If it comes in contact with eye or skin then keep rinsing with water for some time. Remove any contaminated clothing as it can easily catch fire. * Aqueous Sodium Bicarbonate is harmful. Contact with eyes and skin can cause irritation. If contact is made then rinse with plenty of water. Seek medical help if condition persists.xiii * Limewater is harmful and corrosive. Eye or skin contact can result in severe burns and irritation, so make sure that you wear safety goggles and gloves while handling it. Rinse with water if contact is made and call for medical help.xiv Test 5 - Acidified Potassium Dichromate: This test gives a positive result for a Primary or Secondary Alcohol. It also gives a negative result for tertiary Alcohol and confirms it. Apparatus and Chemicals list: * Test Tube * 3cm3 Pipette * Spatula * Acidified Potassium (VI) dichromate * Water Bath * Acetone * Measuring cylinder Method and Observations: Add 1.0cm3 of the acidified potassium dichromate solution into a test tube. To the same test tube then, add 2.5cm3 of the unknown compound. If the unknown compound is in solid state then first add 2 spatulas of it in a separate test tube, measure 5cm3 of acetone and it to the unknown compound and stir it to dissolve it. ...read more.

Conclusion

Then add 10 drops of this solution to the test tube containing the 2.5cm3 of the Tollen's reagent as mentioned earlier. Warm this test tube in a water bath for 5 minutes. If there's a silver precipitate/mirror produced then the test is positive. If no precipitate forms then the test is negative. If a positive result is obtained, then the unknown compound is confirmed to be an Aldehyde. If a negative result is obtained, then the unknown compound is confirmed to be a Ketone. Safety and Hazards: * Tollen's reagent is corrosive. If there's a skin contact, the area could become black in colour over couple days. Any contact should be immediately rinsed with water. * Methanol is toxic and highly flammable. Make sure it's kept away from any source of ignition. Do not inhale or ingest as it can cause serious harm and could even be fatal. If it comes in contact with eye or skin then keep rinsing with water for some time. Remove any contaminated clothing as it can easily catch fire. General Safety Precautions: * Eye goggle must be worn at all times to avoid any eye contact with harmful chemicals. * Lab Coats must be worn at all times to prevent any contamination of cloths. * Chairs and Bags must always be kept under the tables to prevent any accidents and to consider the safety of others * Always clean up any spillages and keep your work place tidy to reduce any accidents. ...read more.

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