• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Identification of an unknown Organic Compound

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Identification of an unknown Organic Compound The organic compound that I have to identify can have several functional groups. These are: * Alkene * Phenol * Carboxylic acid * Aldehyde * Ketone * Primary alcohol * Tertiary alcohol * Ester The functional group in an alkene is that it has a double bond. This function allows an alkene to undergo addition reactions as it has an area of high electron density that attracts electrophiles. Therefore, in order to test for alkenes, I will use the Bromine water test as bromine can act as an electrophile. A bromine molecule may have instantaneous dipole between each other. This causes the + end of the dipoles to attack the high electron density area. If the unknown compound is an alkene, than the bromine water which is originally brown will decolourise. The mechanism for this reaction shown below; However, phenol will also decolourise bromine water as well as form white precipitant. This is an indication that the unknown compound is a phenol rather than an alkene. Phenol is an aromatic compound similar to Benzene but one of the hydrogen atoms is substituted by and OH group. ...read more.

Middle

Risk Assessments Whilst carrying out any of these tests, safety glasses, gloves and lab coats must be worn at all times. * Bromine water is classified as harmful and it should be handled very carefully. Bromine vapours are released when left in open air, this can be harmful if you inhale the vapours and asthmatics should specifically be careful. Therefore, do not leave bromine water in open air. Also do not expose bromine water to skin as it may cause burns. Any contact with skin should be washed off with plenty of water immediately. * Phenol is toxic when inhaled and highly corrosive. Therefore, it must be handled very carefully as it can cause severe burns when in contact with skin and can cause lung damage if inhaled. It must be used in a well ventilated laboratory. Any contact with skin should be washed off with plenty of water and soap. If inhaled, than seek medical help immediately. * Sodium carbonate solution is irritant to eyes although it doesn't pose a great danger. If contact is made with eyes, than wash it off with plenty of water. ...read more.

Conclusion

This observation will identify that a primary alcohol is present. 7. Test for Dehydration: Set the apparatus as shown below. Soak 2cm3 of the unknown compound with cotton wool and place it at the bottom of the test tube. Than align the test tube horizontally as shown below and place 1cm3 of aluminium oxide in the middle of the test tube. Once the apparatus is placed, heat the aluminium oxide granules with a gentle flame. This will cause vapours from the unknown compound to pass through and collect into the other test tube. As the alkene gas is collected, bung the test tube for the next part of the experiment (addition of Bromine water). Picture taken from www.chemguide.co.uk The reaction of dehydration of a tertiary alcohol is shown below. Al2O3 600K Tertiary alcohol Alkene + Water 8. Bromine water test: After the alkene gas has been collected, carefully open the bung and immediately add 5 drops of bromine water. Put the bung back in place and shake the test tube. If the unknown compound is a tertiary alcohol, than bromine water should decolourise. If it hasn't decolourised, than through the process of elimination, we can conclude that the unknown compound is an ester. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Organic Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Reactions of aldehydes and ketones. The purpose of this experiment is to compare ...

    5 star(s)

    The test tube was placed in a warm water bath and a few minutes. 6. The experiment was repeated using propanone instead of ethanal. Part 4: Iodoform test 1. 5 drops of ethanal and 1 cm3 of iodine solution were added into a test tube.

  2. The Importance of Functional Groups and Isomerism in Organic Molecules

    NH2COOH The functional group of 4-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid: Carboxylic Acid, this is because 4-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid contains a carboxyl group. The displayed formulae for 4-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid The uses for 4-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid * PABA- Para-aminobenzoic acid (serves as a provitamin for some bacteria)

  1. Find the enthalpy change of combustion of a number of alcohol's' so that you ...

    A bomb calorimeter can give a very accurate and reliable result for the enthalpy change of combustion. Another way to stop heat loss is to use a flame or food calorimeter where heat is directly connected to the water through copper tube in an enclosed system with a tube for oxygen.

  2. The aim of this experiment is to investigate the enthalpy change of combustion for ...

    I therefore decided to draw the line, which followed the trend set by the actual results from the data book, as this line went through the first three points on the graph. The gradient of this graph =-490 2 =-245KJ/mol per carbon atom in the chain The error between this

  1. The aim of this experiment is to produce Aspirin. This is an estrification in ...

    Wear eye protection. Wear protective gloves. Avoid skin contact ethanoic anhydride Corrosive Causes burns with blistering and peeling. Contact with eyes may cause delayed damage. Extremely irritating vapour. Can catch fire if heated. Reacts violently with water Wear eye protection. Wear protective gloves.

  2. investigating the amount of ascorbic acid present in fruit

    Tap the 1ml pipette gently against the 250cm3 conical flask so that all of the 4% solution of KI is released thus increasing accuracy. 5. Finally add to the 250cm3 conical flask 0.40ml of 10% acetic acid and 0.30ml of 1% soluble starch (which acts as the indicator)

  1. Comprehensive and Detailed Chemistry notes

    Sensors transmit pressure data for monitoring. - Temperature monitoring: Temperature must remain in optimum range Sensors transmit temperature data for monitoring. - Catalyst activity monitoring: Particle size of catalyst must be monitered to ensure high surface area. - Product monitoring: The ammonia must be monitored after thereaction to ensure that it meets standards and must not contain impurities.

  2. Investigating the Enthalpy Changes of Combustion of Alcohols.

    The mass of the calorimeter was 112.98 grams. The temperature rise in the calorimeter would be the same as that of the water i.e. 22�C. The specific heat capacity of copper is 0.385 Jg-1K-1 (3). ?E (to cal.) = 112.98g x 0.385 Jg-1K-1 x 22 �C ?E = 956.94 J ?E (mol-1)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work