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Investigating the Factors that Change the Rate of Amylase on Starch.

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Introduction

Investigating the Factors that Change the Rate of Amylase on Starch Plan - The aim of this experiment is to investigate the factors that affect the rate in which amylase breaks down starch. Amylase is an enzyme, which is found in the digestive system, it is used to speed up the reaction of the long chain starch molecules into smaller chains. Enzymes are biological catalysts that will speed up a reaction without them selves being changed. Enzymes are very complicated molecules that are twisted and folded into very precise three-dimensional shapes, this shape includes a dent, which is called the active site, it is exactly the right shape and size for the substrate. E.g. starch will only fit into the amylase enzyme. When a substrate fits into an enzyme they bind and the bonds in the substrate break, this forms two new soluble molecules. Then the enzyme is ready to catalyse another reaction. Enzymes are affected by high temperatures as they are proteins and if the temperature is too high it can alter the shapes of the enzyme molecules, enzymes are damaged when the temperature reaches over 40 C. ...read more.

Middle

Then I will place a drop of iodine into each dimple on the dimple tray. After a few minutes of the amylase and starch solutions in the water bath I will pour the starch into the amylase and with a teat pipette place a drop of the solution into one of the dimples on the dimple tray which contains iodine on, I will then start the timer. After 1 minute I will put another drop of the solution into another dimple on the tray. I will carry on adding a drop after every minute until the tray is full. Temp( C) Time (mins) Colour 27 0 Black 27 1 Black 27 2 Black 27 3 Black 27 4 Very dark brown 27 5 Dark brown 27 6 Brown 27 7 Light brown 27 8 Orange/brown From the trial test I did, I decided to use 2cm of amylase solution and the same amount for the starch solution. After every minute I will put 1 drop of the solution into one of the dimples. I also decided to do the temperatures: 4 C, 25 C, 40 C, 50 C and 70 C. ...read more.

Conclusion

However I predicted that the optimum temperature would be around 40 C but was actually around 50 C. However from my results I am not able to find that much of a relationship other then as the temperature rises the time decreases until the temperature reaches over 50 C. Evaluation - I think that my experiment went quite well but a few of my results weren't what I thought they would be as the graph shows that the optimum temperature is 50 C when in fact it should be 40 C, the 50 C time should have been higher then the 40 C one, and the graph should have been more of a 'U' shape rather than the shape it is. I could have improved the experiment by taking the pH level instead of just judging it by the colour as I could have easily stopped on slightly different colours. The amylase should have also been kept in each water bath for longer, maybe for 30 minutes so that the amylase had been completely affected by the temperature before it was added to the starch. I also think that I should have done more temperatures with perhaps 10 C between each temperature to get clearer results. But overall I feel that my experiment was designed quite well. ...read more.

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