• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15
  16. 16
  17. 17
  18. 18
  19. 19
  20. 20
  21. 21
  22. 22
  23. 23

Is it worth creating antimatter?

Extracts from this document...




Is it Worthwhile creating antimatter?


What is antimatter?        

Specific Types of Antiparticles        




Beta Radiation        

Negative Beta Radiation        

Positive Beta Radiation        

Positron-Electron Annihilation        


Current Antimatter Production        

Production of antiprotons        

Antimatter Atoms        

Penning Trap        


Energy Production        

Military Weaponry        

Medical Imaging        

Production of Positrons        




Is it worth creating antimatter now?        

Is it worth funding research into antimatter?        


Appendix A: Table of Figures        

Appendix B: Bibliography        

Appendix C: Synoptic Links        


What is antimatter?

For each of the fermions (leptons and quarks) detailed above, they have a corresponding anti-particle. These particles are in no way different to ours, except for the opposition of charge. In essence, there is no reason why our universe couldn’t have been made from antimatter, and if it were, then we would classify our normal matter as antimatter. What this means is that antimatter merely has the anti prefix because it is not what we are used to. There is no deep meaning to it.

For each elementary fermion, therefore, there is a corresponding antifermion. For each quark, there is an antiquark. For each hadron, there is an antihadron. These are represented by the same symbols as the normal equivalents, but with a line over the top. A muon is represented by the greek letter mu (μ), whereas its corresponding antiparticle – the antimuon is represented thusly: image02.png. It has a charge of +1 (the negative of the charge of a muon) and the same mass – 207 times the mass of an electron.

Some of the properties will continue to be documented in the rest of the report, however, for now; I will describe some of the properties of the most commonly occurring antiparticles

Specific Types of Antiparticles


...read more.


Beta-radiation, at a basic level, is simply the decay of a down quark to an up quark. However, this breaks some of the conservation laws! Since an up quark is slightly lighter than a down quark, there must be another constituent particle released, and for years, scientists thought this was it:

d → u + e-

Charge is clearly conserved, as is mass. However, when one actually observes the decay, there is a difference in mass that one would not expect to see:


Figure 3: Energy Released in Beta-Decay

This is seemingly unexplained! Clearly there cannot be energetic photons released just like in alpha-emission, because otherwise the energy would come in steps, energy being quantized.

The answer: Neutrinos! Latin for ‘little neutral particle,’ these were first suggested by Pauli and by releasing these particles with differing amounts of energy, this accounts for the seemingly unexplained difference in the energy levels. This is what Figure 3, the Feynman diagram shows with one slight exception – the anti-neutrino is there to maintain lepton number, as otherwise there is two leptons on one side and none on the other; there must be an antilepton to cancel out the ‘leptonicity’ electron.

Positive Beta Radiation

There is another type of beta radiation – β+ decay. This is different from the previous example because it does not occur, naturally releasing energy; instead, it requires energy put into the system to occur in most cases. However, there are some isotopes that are able to do it in normal situations.

d → u + e+ + νe


Figure 4: Beta-plus decay

Although this does not occur normally in isolation, as the mass of the down quark is greater than that of the up quark there are rare instances where this can occur.

...read more.



Appendix A: Table of Figures

Figure 1: Positron being released in a cloud chamber

Figure 2: Feynman Diagram of Beta Decay

Figure 3: Energy Released in Beta-Decay

Figure 4: Beta-plus decay

Figure 5: Feynman diagram showing the annihilation of an electron-positron pair

Figure 6: Antiproton Decelerator schematics

Figure 7: Penning Trap

Figure 8: Electric Fields within a Penning Trap

Below, Figure 9 plots the path of an antihydrogen atom in one of these traps.

Figure 10: Path of an antihydrogen atom in a Penning Trap

Figure 11: Graph of Energy Density

Figure 12:  Photon Emission in PET Scanning

Although the antimatter is a very useful substance, it is simply worth too much to be efficient. When it was first created, less than one trillionth of a gram was seen as remarkable, and when creating this amount of the material is abnormal or strange, then there is little point in investing the money or energy into created a large amount of antimatter using the techniques we have at the moment. Although antimatter could be a valid energy production source (see Figure 13 for evidence of this,) first a valid method of creating or harnessing the antimatter fuel must be created.

Figure 1: Image from http://athena-positrons.web.cern.ch/ATHENA-positrons/wwwathena/anderson.html

Figure 2: Image from Uppsala website:  http://www.linnaeus.uu.se/online/phy/microcosmos/different_forces.html

Figure 3: Image from Physics Revealed by F.A. Scott, page 48

Figure 4: Adapted from Image from Physics Revealed by F.A. Scott, page 48

Figure 5: http://teachers.web.cern.ch/teachers/archiv/HST2002/feynman/

Figure 6: CERN press release, http://public.web.cern.ch/press/pressreleases/Releases1997/PR01.97/DA_A.gif

Figure 7: http://athena-positrons.web.cern.ch/ATHENA-positrons/wwwathena/penning.html

Figure 8: http://livefromcern.web.cern.ch/livefromcern/antimatter/factory/ADpictures/trap-big.jpg

Figure 9: http://www.physik.uni-mainz.de/werth/g_fak/penning.htm

Appendix B: Bibliography

Appendix C: Synoptic Links


Page  of

[1] Encyclopaedia of Surface and Colloid Science, Ponisseril Somasundaran (pg. 5103)

[2] Data and Information gathered from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_density

...read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern Physics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern Physics essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    Albert Einstein - The father of modern physics

    4 star(s)

    guess would be that the warping of space-time around objects close to the speed of light allows the very fabric of reality to control an objects speed so that it can never exceed the speed of light. These two effects are also seen when the force of gravity is exerted

  2. Physics-energy production in Hong Kong and potential new ways of generating power.

    The burning of fossil fuels increases the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere and hence enhances the greenhouse effect, resulting a gradual rise in global temperature, known as global warming.

  1. Free essay

    The development of the modern concept of the atom, the size and nature of ...

    The orbits from the Bohr model are divided into sub-orbits, but there is no way of showing the infinite amount of sub-orbits or which orbit the electron would be in so the most dense place in the cloud is the most probable location of an electron.

  2. A2 OCR B (Advancing Physics) - Research and Report: Nuclear Fusion as an Energy ...

    This is due to the strong nuclear force which holds them together; the nucleus is in an energy state lower than the nucleons separately. The difference or binding energy is calculated using Einstein's theory of relativity: which varies from one element to another.

  1. Quantum Phenomena Observed During Near Absolute Zero Conditions

    Secondly but also most importantly, he used Bose's rule in the context of atoms, seeing that photons and atoms are relatively the same thing. When these rules were applied to atoms in gases, for most temperatures, the behaviour according to him was pretty much the same as Bose's prediction.

  2. Modern Physics - AQA GCE Physics B - Revision Notes

    are formed from the superposition of 2 identical waves travelling in opposite direction. In string instrument, travelling waves travels to the ends of the string where they reflect and undergo a complete phase change of 180o. They then travel in opposite directions again and are constantly out of phase -

  1. There are many ways in which scientists from all around the world discuss and ...

    One scenario is a university lecture. This requires the speaker to stand at the front of the lecture theatre and present information that the students will need so that they will be able to understand the topic that they are studying. Another scenario is a public engagement talk.

  2. Why We Still Need the Space Programme

    Business can be done quickly and easily from countries thousands of miles apart. ?Over two billion of the six billion people in our world today lack formal education systems, health care services, potable water or power. The only way to provide global education and health care services in the coming

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work