• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11

Outline and Critique the Claim that GeneticTherapy is justified but Genetic Enhancement is not

Extracts from this document...


Outline and Critique the Claim that Genetic Therapy is justified but Genetic Enhancement is not 1. Introduction The opportunity of genetic technology employment on human turns up a number of moral questions and warns people toward the implication of this issue. From this emerge various human rights issues of how people are to understand the idea for respect for rights and human dignity. For instance, genetic therapy and genetic enhancement are two of several advanced technological treatment on human, as the result of the progression of the development in the medical and healthy areas. They nowadays become the main topics of many discussions among ethical scholars, and this will be the main key points of this writing. In order to maintain human life and society into nature moral framework, it seems so urgent to see and analyse deeply about both of these matters. Related to those problems, in this essay I would like to outline and write some critiques toward genetic therapy and genetic enhancement. The argument is that the claim that genetic therapy could be justified but genetic enhancement should not being justified. Nevertheless, I am not intending to resolve the problem or to justify anything, but to tease out some of the possibly conflicting values that are tie up with human discussing on these issues. In order to do that, we will begin by going through the review of both genetic therapy and genetic enhancement, and then examine them one another. We will also see not only the distinction between them but such advantages and disadvantages of genetic therapy and genetic enhancement as well. 2. Genetic Therapy and Genetic Enhancement In terms of the definition of both genetic, or some people just say 'gene', therapy and genetic enhancement, some people are often being confused not only to distinguish each other but also the objects of these treatments. Therefore, it is important to make these terms clear to everybody, and thus we could construct such any forward ethical notion upon those advanced medical technology phenomenon. ...read more.


permanent ones, and therefore is very possible to settle-down and keep the treated individual in good condition for long time, only by one treatment. The fourth is that the medical professional believe that through genetic therapy, indeed, the patients own body produces the therapeutic2 gene product (ibid). In this sense, medically, when any gene treatment is given to somebody for any particular disease, it also supplements those genes treated to enable them to create the therapeutic product as an immune for her or his body. As the implication of this, of course, the individual might have and enjoy good health for a long term. The last one is that once a treatment for one genetic disease has been developed, thus a similar disease should be equally treatable, using a different disease-specific gene (ibid). The plausibility of this conviction emerges optimism to many people who suffer from both regular and specific disease. More over, genetic therapy seems to be able to overcome almost all kind of illness. Nonetheless, genetic therapy could raise several disadvantages. Rocholl (1996) indicates at least three negative impacts of the therapy, which could be categorised into three main problems, namely: increasing the number of abortions, high insurance, and regulation. Furthermore, these problems can be examined as follows: Firstly, since the basis of gene therapy is to find the malfunctioning gene and to insert a healthy portion into that gene, and that scientists must perform genetic tests or genetic screening to see if the gene that causes, for instance cystic fibrosis, is present. This genetic testing is causing much controversy and raising many ethical and legal problems. This is because it is seen as not only an invasion of privacy, but also these prenatal tests could lead to an increase in the number of abortions. (www.ndsu.nodak.edu). Secondly, in fact, when people know that they have a positive test for any disease, eventually, they are facing a dilemma in finding adequate insurance to cover the treatments, that can be gene therapy, or living out their lives knowing that they carry a gene for a disease. ...read more.


When people go through any treatment in order to enhance their abilities and capabilities higher than the normal one they have, this kind of behavior may create a certain "superman" people, in which it can subvert social equality principle. Likewise, it will develop an unfair competition where the enhanced people entirely tend to use their over-loaded capacity to overcome those normal people. The implication of this phenomenon is that empowering people through genetic enhancement will eventually destroy the community and the people themselves. The Guardian (2002) emphasizes that the ability to genetically enhance future generations could lead to an era of violent rebellion against the emergence of a new 'overclass'. Thus, this kind of treatment should not be justified and even must be prohibited by both society and government. Yet, King underlines that "medical resources should not be used for 'enhancement'" (King, 2001 on www.hgalert.org). The further consequence of this justification is that there should be clear such a provision for examining what is "cure" and what is "enhancement". 6. Conclusion Generally, people always want to spend their life in good condition without pain or illness both in physically and non-physically. Some of them even want to get better condition that the normal one they have. Therefore, many people concern and seek continually to have such treatment that can provide the good, or for some the better, condition; these desires now could be presented by genetic engineering, namely genetic therapy and genetic enhancement. As a conclusion, since any treatment such as genetic therapy is intended to healing and maintaining the health of people, so it looks like a good effort of human kind; pertaining human good, human life and human dignity; and thus it should be justified. Conversely, we could not give any concern for justifying genetic enhancement as it could lead people into producing special human with some "super" abilities, in which it could destroy the community or human kind because of those abnormal capabilities they have. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    An Investigation into the Mitotic Nuclear Division of Allium Sativum Root Tip Cells, and ...

    5 star(s)

    were conducted, and the effect of the staining and preparation process on the cells mounted on the slide, in both the investigation conducted to obtain this background research, and in the experimental procedure observed in this investigation. Evaluation: Limitations and Errors (See relevant column for the descending order of significance, i.e.

  2. Marked by a teacher


    4 star(s)

    Also, an individual can have p http://bipolar.about.com/od/depression/a/060214_dpsym2.htm Intellectually Emotionally Social: Treatment There are three groups of mood stabilisers, which can take several months to work properly with someone who has been diagnosed with the illness. These are follows: - Lithium is used to treat both manic and depressive episodes.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Should Gene therapy be allowed to prevent cystic fibrosis?

    3 star(s)

    Gene therapy at work Firstly a gene is inserted into the target cells (target cells are the cells that do not function). The insertion of target cells could be performed by using a genetically modified virus, carried by a vector, or by using a liposome (spherical Phospholipid bilayer).

  2. Marked by a teacher

    The Problem of Endangerment in Siberian Tigers

    3 star(s)

    because it only increased by about twenty instead of following the assumed increase of 100. The reason for this slow increase is because of the fall in the Soviet Union which ended the law of hunting Siberian tigers to be illegal.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Can Germ line Gene Therapy be used as a treatment for Huntingtons Disease?

    3 star(s)

    Gene Therapy using Viral Vectors This process also has advantages over the liposome method such as the viral method has greater efficiency and a higher success rate, according to John Chiorini of the National Institute of Health. The steps for viral gene delivery involve: * Isolate the 'healthy' allele from

  2. The Biology of Autistic Spectrum Disorder and the Social Implications

    After a diagnosis of autism has been confirmed, an assessment on the child is required in order to evaluate the educational needs and method of support that is required. Children who have Asperger's syndrome may not need to attend a specialist school and can attend a mainstream school as long as the symptoms are minimal.

  1. Gm foods and Gene therapy

    is at present seen as a much sustainable response in biotechnology for a lot of the people in UK. GM RISK AS A SOCIAL CONTRACT If they are to achieve public acceptance, in this fresh context new technologies such as GM food must please an invisible social contract.

  2. Recombinant DNA, genetically engineered DNA prepared in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and ...

    Approximately 50 percent of all human cancers involve a defective copy of the gene, but until recently scientists were unclear about exactly how the p53 gene does its job. One theory was that many cells start down the road to malignancy when their DNA is damaged by mutagens such as

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work