• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Saccharides - Structure and Function.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Saccharides - Structure and Function Saccharides are what we commonly know as sugars, The are composed of carbon, Hydrogen and oxygen and are used in the body for everything from the manufacture of DNA to respiration in cells. What they are used for Carbohydrates' main function in the body is in respiration, a process without which living creatures could not exist, they are perfect for this job as they oxidize very easily. Only 10% of any sugar can be active or in straight chain form at any one time, the other 90% of the sugars are tied up in a circular form of the sugar which ties up the active group of the sugar, hence preventing it from reacting. H Glucose in straight chain form - C=O H-C-OH OH-C-H H-C-OH H-C-OH CH2OH Glucose in ring form - Active groups All sugars contain one of two active groups ...read more.

Middle

For example Glucose - C6H12O6 and Fructose - C5H10O5. Both of these conform to the formula (CH2O)n. Monosaccharides can be classed as trioses, tetroses, pentoses, and heptoses depending on the number of carbon atoms there are in the molecule. Their specific molecular formulas changes depending on the no. of carbon atoms they contain, but they still conform to the general formula (CH2O)n. All monosaccharides are sweet to taste and are soluble in water. Uses of different Monosaccharides Trioses : Are involved mainly in carbohydrate metabolism Pentoses : Are used in the synthesis of nucleic (DNA/RNA) acids, Synthesis of ATP (energy molecules),are CO2 acceptors in photosynthesis. Hexoses: Used as respiratory substrates (e.g. glucose), used in the synthesis of di./poly. saccharides Condensation Polymerization Monomers can be joined together in chains to form larger polysaccharides this can be done by condensation polymerization. ...read more.

Conclusion

Polysaccharides are generally not sweet or soluble. The most common forms of polysaccharides we know are starch and glycogen, both almost identical to each other. Starch is used as an energy store molecule in plants and glycogen in animals is used for the same purpose. Polysaccharides are used as storage molecules because of the fact that they are so large they are insoluble and they can coil/fold into compact shapes, they are also used as structural molecules (cellulose). Tests for Saccharides The most common test for reducing sugars (all mono/disaccharides except sucrose) is The Benedicts test. This is done by adding copper sulphate to a solution of the sugar and water and then heating it gently. If the sugar is a reducing sugar it will reduce the copper sulphate and make a residue of brick red copper oxide in the solution. A common test for starch/ glycogen (polysaccharides) is to add iodine to it, suspended in water. The suspension should turn from brown to blue black. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Exchange, Transport & Reproduction section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Exchange, Transport & Reproduction essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Describe the molecular structure of starch (amylase), glycogen and cellulose, and relate these structures ...

    4 star(s)

    Deoxyribose (a pentose) is used to make DNA . Each glucose unit is known as a monomer and is capable of linking others. Disaccharides are formed when two monosaccharides are joined together by a glycosidic bond. The reaction, which is called a condensation reaction, involves the loss of water (H2O)

  2. Peer reviewed

    The comparison of antibacterial properties of herbal products and standard antibiotics

    5 star(s)

    * Oven- to dry the herbal soaked filter discs. Set at 180?, leave the discs in for 15minutes. * Baking tray- to place the herbal discs on. Method: (The highlighted steps are the alterations) 1. Wash your hands prior to the experiment and using cotton wool and disinfectant wipe down the surface area you are using.

  1. Peer reviewed

    "An investigation into the Respiration of Carbohydrate Substrates by Yeast."

    5 star(s)

    However the beehive shelf still provided a good base to balance the measuring cylinder on to keep it perpendicular to the clamp stand, ensuring accurate measurements. In the pilot, it was found that foam from the reacting yeast and carbohydrate travelled up the delivery tube especially when it was being shaken.

  2. Rate of Respiration

    the statistical test called the T-test will need to be carried out which will provide me with a probability of the likely hood that my null hypothesis is true. In order to accurately and clearly identify if there is any significant difference between the volume of CO2 produced and the

  1. Outline the Use, Structure and Function of Starch, Glycogen and Cellulose in Living Organisms.

    in the liver and muscles of humans and the higher animals and in the cells of the lower animals. It is also found in fungi but not plants. Chemically it is a highly branched condensation polymer of ?-glucose; it is readily hydrolyzed to glucose.

  2. The sensitivity of the Benedict's Test-Investigation

    darkest colour dark orange after testing for reducing sugars whereas the 0.001% glucose solution remained blue. This suggests that as the percentage of glucose was increased the darker the colour became meaning that there was more glucose present. From the graph of average percentage transmissions of glucose in each sample,

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work