• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The application of enzymes in industry and medicine

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The application of enzymes in industry and medicine. Firstly, what is an enzyme? Enzymes are biological catalysts, they are chemical compounds made inside the cells of living organisms. Enzymes speed up the rate of most chemical reactions without altering the end product. Enzymes generally only work with one certain substrate. The enzyme provides an active site, which is the same shape as the substrate molecules, the substrate binds with the enzyme and causes the reaction to speed up. Enzymes work best at body temperature. Enzymes are used in the making of many things in industry. They are used in the dairy industry, brewing industry, baking industry, agricultural forestry, leather industry, biological washing powders and medicine. There are many advantages in using enzymes in industry, one being that they are very specific in their action, they react only with one certain substrate to produce one certain product and are unlikely to produce any unwanted by-products. Two being that they are energy saving, as they work The most common method of coagulating milk is enzyme coagulation; proteolysis of casein by the enzymes asparate proteinases. ...read more.

Middle

Many different proteases can be used to coagulate milk. However, the best are those that cut kappa casein. Kappa casein is an important component in maintaining the micelle structure of milk. If the kappa casein is cut, the micelle structure is lost and milk coagulates. There are several sources for enzymes that clot milk. The main source is rennin. Plant sources include Lady Bedstraw (Galium rerum), Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica), and Thistle flower (Cynara cardunaculus). The fungus Mucor michei is also used as a source of clotting enzyme. Both liquid and tablet versions of the Mucor enzyme are available commercially. Rennet is a traditional preparation made from the lining of the fourth stomach from very young, milk-fed calves. Rennin is the name given to the enzyme fraction of rennet. Rennin is a group of acid proteases. The most important enzyme in rennet is chymosin. To make rennet, milk-fed calves are killed and their fourth stomach removed. The calves must be milk-fed and are usually less than 10 days old. ...read more.

Conclusion

After that, as the microbes replicate, all new cells automatically have a copy of the gene. Since microbes are easy to grow, the supply of chymosin is stable. As the demand for chymosin increases or decreases, more or less microbes are grown to match the supply with the demand. Since microbes replicate rapidly, there is no chance of the supply of chymosin becoming limited. The enzyme added to the milk is more pure than rennet. Chymosin is purified before use. There are no unwanted additives or other components from the calf. Chymosin is completely natural-the chymosin made by the yeast cells is the same as that made by the calf cells. A problem frequently encountered in the marketing of beer is the appearance of a haze that is caused by chilling the beer. This problem is combatted by the addition of papain to the beer "chill-proofing". There are therefore added enzymes to decompose the proteins and allow their re-dissolution. The method of extracting the enzyme from the papaya fruit is by using an amino acid "cysteine" which serves as an antioxidant. Cysteine is extracted from animal & human hair. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Advantages & Disadvantages of Using Enzymes in Medicine and Industry

    3 star(s)

    Enzymes can also be used to fix enzyme deficiency, which will improve the lifestyle of the people that are suffering from the genetic diseases. Enzymes in industry are mainly used for enhancement of the rate of the reaction that takes place to form the product or they are used to enhance the product itself.

  2. The Application of Enzymes in Industry and Medicine.

    than when it is absent. Hence, the reaction is said to go faster in a given period of time. A theory to explain the catalytic action of enzymes was proposed by a Swedish chemist called Savante Arrhenius in 1888, it closely ties with the lock and key hypothesis as previously explained.

  1. The Application of Enzymes in Industry and Medicine

    One of these is temperature, as the temperature increases so does the enzyme-catalysed reaction the reaction rate increases with temperature to a maximum level, then abruptly declines with further increase of temperature this is as the structure changes and the enzyme becomes denatured in fact most animal enzymes rapidly become denatured at temperatures above 40 C.

  2. 'The application of enzymes in industry and medicine'.

    is far more important. Problems in winemaking are the frequent infection of the grapes by the fungus Botrytis cinerea which produces beta-glucans which pass into the wine. These large molecular glucans hinder the clarification of the wine by clogging the filtration devices.

  1. Describe the evolution of microbes.

    Origin of heredity either before or after protobiont appearance. (http://www.tnstate.edu) Protobionts can exist in various forms - * Microspheres - self assembled drops of proteinoids, coated by a selectively permeable protein membrane * Liposomes - contain lipids that form a lipid bi-layer similar to that found in cell membranes.

  2. The application of enzymes in Industry and Medicine.

    As there are a rapid increasing number of vegetarians in the world, the enzyme chymosin is being more widely used. It is produced by genetically engineered Escherichia coli. The enzymes are very similar and so the difference in taste and texture of the resulting cheeses is negligible.

  1. Uses of enzymes In industry and Medicine

    The result is a smoother, glossy fabric. Another use of enzymes in the textile industry is in a process called biostoning; during this process cellulase is put on the jeans to create a stonewashed effect without as much damage being caused to the garment compared to using pumice stones which were used originally.

  2. The use of enzymes in industry and medicine.

    The hybrid plasmid replicates as part of the cell's DNA when it is reincorporated into the bacterial cell. 4. A large number of daughter cells can be cultured and their gene products extracted for human use. Enzymes can be used to aid digestion in both humans and animals.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work