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The application of enzymes in industry and medicine

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Introduction

The application of enzymes in industry and medicine. Firstly, what is an enzyme? Enzymes are biological catalysts, they are chemical compounds made inside the cells of living organisms. Enzymes speed up the rate of most chemical reactions without altering the end product. Enzymes generally only work with one certain substrate. The enzyme provides an active site, which is the same shape as the substrate molecules, the substrate binds with the enzyme and causes the reaction to speed up. Enzymes work best at body temperature. Enzymes are used in the making of many things in industry. They are used in the dairy industry, brewing industry, baking industry, agricultural forestry, leather industry, biological washing powders and medicine. There are many advantages in using enzymes in industry, one being that they are very specific in their action, they react only with one certain substrate to produce one certain product and are unlikely to produce any unwanted by-products. Two being that they are energy saving, as they work The most common method of coagulating milk is enzyme coagulation; proteolysis of casein by the enzymes asparate proteinases. ...read more.

Middle

Many different proteases can be used to coagulate milk. However, the best are those that cut kappa casein. Kappa casein is an important component in maintaining the micelle structure of milk. If the kappa casein is cut, the micelle structure is lost and milk coagulates. There are several sources for enzymes that clot milk. The main source is rennin. Plant sources include Lady Bedstraw (Galium rerum), Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica), and Thistle flower (Cynara cardunaculus). The fungus Mucor michei is also used as a source of clotting enzyme. Both liquid and tablet versions of the Mucor enzyme are available commercially. Rennet is a traditional preparation made from the lining of the fourth stomach from very young, milk-fed calves. Rennin is the name given to the enzyme fraction of rennet. Rennin is a group of acid proteases. The most important enzyme in rennet is chymosin. To make rennet, milk-fed calves are killed and their fourth stomach removed. The calves must be milk-fed and are usually less than 10 days old. ...read more.

Conclusion

After that, as the microbes replicate, all new cells automatically have a copy of the gene. Since microbes are easy to grow, the supply of chymosin is stable. As the demand for chymosin increases or decreases, more or less microbes are grown to match the supply with the demand. Since microbes replicate rapidly, there is no chance of the supply of chymosin becoming limited. The enzyme added to the milk is more pure than rennet. Chymosin is purified before use. There are no unwanted additives or other components from the calf. Chymosin is completely natural-the chymosin made by the yeast cells is the same as that made by the calf cells. A problem frequently encountered in the marketing of beer is the appearance of a haze that is caused by chilling the beer. This problem is combatted by the addition of papain to the beer "chill-proofing". There are therefore added enzymes to decompose the proteins and allow their re-dissolution. The method of extracting the enzyme from the papaya fruit is by using an amino acid "cysteine" which serves as an antioxidant. Cysteine is extracted from animal & human hair. ...read more.

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