• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9

The Application of Enzymes in Industry and Medicine.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The Application of Enzymes in Industry and Medicine. Enzymes are Biological catalysts, allowing the chemical reactions of metabolism to take place, controlling the speed of the reaction. They are found in all living cells and are divided into two main groups, intracellular and extra cellular. Intracellular are found and work inside the cells, therefore are secreted inside the cell membrane, from where they control metabolism. The cells will also produce the extracellular, but these only achieve their full affect outside of the cell, so are secreted outside the cell membrane. Examples of extracellular enzymes include digestion enzymes such as pepsin. Enzymes are complex globular proteins. Their long peptide chains of amino acids linked by peptide bonds are wound, folded and bonded into a precise 3D structure, owing their activity to this particular shape. They are compounds of high molecular weight. See Figure 1. (www.worthington-biochem.com) Hydrogen, ionic, and disulphide bonds as well as hydrophobic interactions all hold the chain in its three-dimensional spherical form. Each enzyme has a unique shape. The precise shape of the active site (the place at which the substrate binds) is so because the enzyme is specific to one substrate-specificity. Thus meaning that the active site of the enzyme has a distinct chemical configuration to which only one substrate has the correct complimentary chemical configuration. This is known as the 'lock and Key' hypothesis. An enzyme works by combining with the substrate molecules to form an enzyme-substrate complex. With their various bonds held in relation with each other, the substrate molecule then reacts to form an enzyme-product complex. This then splits into the unchanged enzyme and a product. The enzyme is then free to be used elsewhere. This can be repeated causing no change to the enzyme, and as often as 100,000/second. A more up to date version of this hypothesis is the induced fit theory. It is similar, but doesn't require such a precise connection being made between the enzyme and substrate at the active site. ...read more.

Middle

However allergic reactions to the detergents within factories caused a withdrawal in the 1970's in the USA. An inert wax was then added to prevent the fine dust particles becoming air born. The liquids and tablets also overcame the problem. The main enzyme activity in biological laundry detergents is protease ( subtilisin, from the bacterium bacillus subtilis, was developed by Denmark to withstand hot conditions) which acts on organic stains such as grass, blood, egg and human sweat and other protein residues. However, it has become more common in recent years to include a "cocktail" of enzyme activities including lipases and amylases. Lipases are effective on stains resulting from fatty products such as oils and fats whilst amylases help remove starchy food deposits. This is where thermostable enzymes are very adequate because of the wide range of temperatures, pH extremes and the presence of high levels of phosphate found in some detergents. More recently, colour enhancing and "anti-bobbling" washing powders have been developed which contain cellulases. It is thought that the mode of action of such cellulases is to remove detached cellulose fibrils, which cause a progressive dulling of the colour as dirt is trapped on the rough surface of the fabric. Enzymes have become particularly important in products developed for the pre-soaking or spot application onto laundry. In these cases soils are loosened by enzyme action prior to the main wash in a detergent. Such products result in reduced detergent costs and the ability to save energy by lower temperature washing. The use of enzymes in automatic dishwashing detergents is also becoming popular. Typical enzyme activities are protease and amylase to remove food particles. Such new products are more environmentally friendly as they contain less bleaching agents and phosphates. The Food and Drink industry is another application upon which enzymes are relied heavily. Enzymes can be used to modify raw materials and aid in the processing or cooking stages. ...read more.

Conclusion

The process even saves on water, one of nature's most precious resources. When using enzymes to get the stonewash look, there is no need for several rinsing processes to get rid of the stones. The advantages of enzyme technology over whole organism technology is primarily that there is no loss of substrate from the increase in biomas, such as when yeast is used to ferment sugar to alcohol some of the sugar is wasted as it is converted to cell wall material and photoplasm during growth. Secondly, elimination of wasteful side reactions takes place when using enzyme technology over using the whole organism. Whole organisms may convert some of the substrate into irrelevant compounds or even contain enzymes for degrading the desired product into something else. So single enzymes are more predictable and more specific. In whole organisms, the enzymes may have a higher optimum temperature than the organism so would not be working at its full potential. Enzyme technology would allow the enzyme to work at is own optimum conditions and at maximum efficiency. Finally purifying the product is easier when as an enzyme, not as an organism because it can be immobilised more efficiently. Also an enzyme contaminates a product less than an organism. (Mr Price class biochemistry notes) In conclusion it is simple to see that life today as we know would be extremely different without the use of enzymes, Infact we would not survive as they are used each day by our bodies to perform important functions. However in regard to industry and medicine the role of enzymes is not a vital, but still huge. They are used in many of the treatments administered to patients and much more. They also play a major role in industry, becoming over the years a billion pound market. Although they go unnoticed and unadvertised as important tools, they are owed great appreciation and gratitude. This is highlighted in the words of Dr. Pavels Ivdra " Enzymes the unsung heroes" (Medical journal Article-Dr. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Find out if enzymes work faster or slower at different temperatures.

    5 star(s)

    the reactants with the same measuring cylinder which was also washed after every experiment, used the same timer and used the same person to judge the decolorization. Because of this I think the test was as fair as it could have been.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Investigating the effect of enzyme concentration on the activity of cellulase.

    5 star(s)

    * 1 x glass rod - to mix the wall paper paste and enzyme solution together and to transfer the water paper paste and enzyme to the syringe barrel. * 1 x 25cm3 syringe barrel - for the mix of wall paper paste and enzyme concentration to measure flow rate.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    How does the concentration of enzymes affect the breakdown of starch by a-amylase in ...

    4 star(s)

    rate of breakdown) by ?-amylase. Does concentration affect the rate at which ?-amylase breaks down starch? If so, what effect would this have on the concentration of ?-amylase used in washing powders? What percentage concentration is most suitable for the breakdown of starch, to be used in washing powders to clean clothes?

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Effect of temperature on the enzyme pectinase in fruit juice production.

    3 star(s)

    The same type of apparatus also has to be used throughout or this could arise in inaccurate results. APPARATUS A pilot study was carried out beforehand to determine what amount and concentration of Pectinase would work effectively on the fruit (Plum).

  1. Antibiotics and Penicillin.

    The instability of the penicillin molecule under acidic conditions and its low concentration in the fermentation broth required the development of extraction equipment that could efficiently contact the aqueous penicillin - containing broth with water - extraction solvent, and then rapidly separate the two phases.

  2. Investigate the effect of enzyme temperature on the activity of the enzyme Trypsin on ...

    * 105ml of 4% milk Marvel suspension. * 105ml of 0.5% trypsin solution. * 2 beakers (one to place the casein, and one to place the trypsin in) * 3 thermometers to place in the test tubes in the water bath * 3 stopwatches to time how long it takes for the solution to clear.

  1. A Level Biology revision notes

    membrane o Accelerate the rate of diffusion * Temperature increases rate of diffusion due to increasing K.E. (kinetic energy) Facilitated Diffusion * Transmembrane proteins form a water-filled ion channel o Allows the passage of ions (Ca2+, Na+, Cl-) down their conc.

  2. Applied Science

    When the aorta is distended, a wave passes along the walls of the arteries and can be felt at point where a superficial artery can be pressed gently against a bone. For example, the radial artery, common carotid artery, facial artery, temporal artery, brachial artery, femoral artery, tibial artery and

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work