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The effect of temperature on the structure of an enzyme

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Introduction

Introduction: For my GCSE Biology assessment I will be investigating the enzyme amylase with the substrate starch. This reaction, which I am going to investigate, is called the protein test for starch. Aim: My intention for this observation is to examine how the enzyme catalyses are affected by changes in temperature. Safety Precautions: In this investigation I am going to make sure that everything is as safe as possible and prevent any accidents from occurring. 1) I will wear safety glasses and a lab coat to prevent avoids danger. 2) I will tie my hair back, which will prevent any accidents from occurring. 3) I will keep my area around me clear to prevent any accidents from occurring. 4) Benches should be tucked under the table so that nobody trips over. 5) As Iodine indicates the symbol means irritant (harmful). Therefore I will be careful with this chemical that it doesn't get to my skin. 6) Chemicals should be placed in the tray so that if they spill they don't drop all over the place and accidents from occurring could be stopped. Apparatus: The apparatus that I require for this investigation is: 1) Test tubes (4): These will be used to place the amylase and starch solution in 2) ...read more.

Middle

I am aware of the fact that enzymes are affected by temperature, although the temperature will need to be at its optimum level. Being optimum is the condition at which enzymes work best, this is around 370C-400C. Consequently this means that only till a certain temperature the enzyme will speed up its rate of reaction. As a result the enzymes, which are over the optimum temperature, they will be denatured, this is not a reversible reaction. Being denatured means that the active site in the enzyme will change its shape so that the substrate molecules will no longer be able to react with the enzyme. Using the knowledge that I have gathered I will now predict that: As the temperature increases till its optimum the rate at which the reaction occurs will also increase. From my research I would therefore say that the optimum temperature is about 370C-400C, so if the temperature reaches higher it will therefore be denatured. Also I have found out that the Q10 law says that: For every 100C raise in temperature the rate of reaction will double, up to about 400C when the enzymes will start to denature. Anther condition that could affect the reaction rate of the enzymes and substrate is the pH of the solution. ...read more.

Conclusion

I will then repeat this procedure for the temperature 200C, 300C, 400C, 500C and 600C. Results: Temperature (() C) Time (seconds) Average Time (Seconds) 1st Test 2nd Test 3rd Test 10 725 800 708 744 20 576 590 600 589 30 490 477 400 455 40 340 387 359 362 50 550 489 587 542 60 687 620 654 654 Conclusion: Temperature/Time graph: The temperature time graph shows me that when the temperature has increased the time it takes for the enzyme to catalyse will decrease. The significance behind this is that at a higher temperature the enzymes will catalyse faster. This is because the time it takes for the enzymes to catalyse under 400C is due to kinetic energy. Therefore the number of collisions between the substrate and the enzymes active site has increased. Although by looking at my graph I can say that the optimum temperature is 400C, the reason for this is because at 400C the enzymes are catalysing the fastest. However at 500C the time taken for the enzymes is longer, although the enzymes and substrate are not catalysing they are getting destroyed, so we say that they are denatured as the shape of the active site changes. Therefore the substrate molecules will no longer be able to fit into the active site. ...read more.

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