• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Effect That Temperature Has On the Rate At Which the Enzyme (Amylase) Can Breakdown Its Substrate

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The Effect that Temperature Has on the Rate at which the Enzyme (Amylase) can Breakdown its Substrate Aim: The aim of this experiment is to find out the effect that the temperature has on the rate at which the enzyme (Amylase) can breakdown its substrate, which is Starch. Amylase: Enzyme having physiological, commercial, and historical significance, also called diastase. It is found in both plants and animals. Amylase hydrolyzes starch, glycogen, and dextrin to form in all three instances glucose, maltose, and the limit-dextrins. Prediction: I predict that as the temperature increases, the speed of the reaction will increase. Since temperature is a measure of the motion of particles, increasing the temperature will cause the particles to move faster. When particles move faster, more collisions occur and the collisions are more violent. This should increase the reaction rate. This is backed up by the collision theory, according to this theory; reacting molecules must collide with sufficient energy if they are to form products. (1,2) When a particular temperature is reached, I believe the rate of reaction will dramatically decrease. I believe this because most chemical reaction happens faster when the temperature is higher. At higher temperatures molecules mover around faster, which makes it easier for them to react together? ...read more.

Middle

tube rack - This is to hold the test tubes during the experiment Justification for the choice of equipment: I have chosen to use most of the equipment above due to accuracy and in order to prevent a high percentage error I have chosen to use measuring syringes to measure the volumes of substances used since it is more accurate than a pipette. I will use an electronic water bath for maintaining the mixture at a temperature above room temperature since the temperature is more accurate than a water bath above a Bunsen burner. I will have to use ice from the freezer to reduce the temperature of the mixture to 10 degrees Celsius. A 100 degrees Celsius thermometer will provide temperature results of a sufficient accuracy (to 1OoC). The pH buffer range will be pre-prepared therefore I do not have to concern myself with measuring and maintaining pH levels. Test tubes are used instead of a conical flask because of its small surface area. Variables: Dependent variables * Rate of breakdown of starch * Time Independent Variable * Temperature of solution Fixed Variables * Volume of starch solution * Volume of amylase solution * Concentration of amylase solution * Concentration of starch solution * Volume of iodine * Agitation * Buffer Number of observations: I have chosen to repeat the experiment 3 times because it therefore allows me to calculate an average time. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is because the starch solution is neutral and in the previous investigation (for pH) 2cm3 of the appropriate buffer was added. If the 2cm3 of water were not added then it would not be a fair test since the volumes used in each part of the investigation would be different. If they were different then this would affect the results since the solution would be of different concentrations and therefore one would react faster than the other would. Safety Precautions: * I will have to be careful when using the enzyme solution, as it is dangerous if it enters ones eye, so I will attempt to overcome this problem by wearing goggles. * Iodine solution is a bleaching agent, so I will be wearing a lab coat so it doesn't bleach my clothes. * Its is also lethal when inhaled, swallowed and ones eyes, so I'll try avoid these. * I will also use a peg to retrieve the test tubes from the boiling water baths, if my skin comes in contact with the water from the water bath, I could suffer severe burns. * I also will be using glassware during the experiment so I will have to be cautious about that. * Also because the calorimeter and the water bath are electronic, I will avoid spilling any of the solutions near the electrical sockets in order to avoid an electric shock. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    How does the concentration of enzymes affect the breakdown of starch by a-amylase in ...

    4 star(s)

    which a successful experiment can be carried out on the agar plates at is 26�C. This means the temperature at which the experiment is carried out is a considerably lower temperature than the optimum temperature of the enzyme. This means that in order to obtain the same kind of results

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Beetroot Practical Write up

    3 star(s)

    After 30 minutes have elapsed, shake the tubes and carefully remove the cylinders from the tubes taking care not the damage the cylinders. This will give you 11 tubes containing solutions stained with red pigment. 8. Calibrate a colourimeter using a clean cuvette of distilled water and a blue filter.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Investigating the effect of temperature on the breakdown of starch by amylase.

    and instead just to note down the time after which there was no more starch present in the solution. In order to decide at which point there was no more starch present, maltose solution was mixed with iodine in a beaker.

  2. An Investigation Into the Effect of Substrate Concentration On the Rate of Enzyme Activity.

    This protection means that the non-immobilised enzymes will become denatured at a lower temperature compared to the immobilised enzymes. There are not many anomalies within the results. For the immobilised enzyme results there was only 2 error bars which over-lapped. This shows that these results may not be very reliable.

  1. The Effect of Substrate Concentration on the Rate of Reaction with Amylase

    Dropper palette. Each specialised groove will be filled with two drops of iodine in preparation. The dropper palette is easily accessible, and as it has 12 grooves in it, the colour change will be easily visible. Method and diagram: First of all, all the equipment must be thoroughly rinsed out

  2. How does pH affect the Denaturation of enzymes Starch and Amylase.

    After I collected all my results for each six-pH level and had them recorded in my table, I repeated the exact same experiment to get more accurate results, using new clean boiling tubes to keep things fair. I then recorded this second set of results and put them in the next column on my table.

  1. WHAT EFFECT DOES SUBSTRATE HAVE ON THE RATE OF RESPIRATION IN SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE?

    Without it, all the supply of oxidised NAD in the cell will be used up leaving none to oxidise anymore glucose to pyruvate. This would mean that glycolysis would stop too. So pyruvate is converted to another compound. It first loses CO2 (decarboxylation)

  2. Catalyse Investigation

    Care was also taken when handling the chemicals as Sulphuric acid is corrosive and potassium permanganate is staining. Results - The results gained from this investigation have been plotted in the table below and on a graph to allow the results to be analysed effectively and so that accurate conclusions can be drawn.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work