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The Effect That Temperature Has On the Rate At Which the Enzyme (Amylase) Can Breakdown Its Substrate

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The Effect that Temperature Has on the Rate at which the Enzyme (Amylase) can Breakdown its Substrate Aim: The aim of this experiment is to find out the effect that the temperature has on the rate at which the enzyme (Amylase) can breakdown its substrate, which is Starch. Amylase: Enzyme having physiological, commercial, and historical significance, also called diastase. It is found in both plants and animals. Amylase hydrolyzes starch, glycogen, and dextrin to form in all three instances glucose, maltose, and the limit-dextrins. Prediction: I predict that as the temperature increases, the speed of the reaction will increase. Since temperature is a measure of the motion of particles, increasing the temperature will cause the particles to move faster. When particles move faster, more collisions occur and the collisions are more violent. This should increase the reaction rate. This is backed up by the collision theory, according to this theory; reacting molecules must collide with sufficient energy if they are to form products. (1,2) When a particular temperature is reached, I believe the rate of reaction will dramatically decrease. I believe this because most chemical reaction happens faster when the temperature is higher. At higher temperatures molecules mover around faster, which makes it easier for them to react together? ...read more.


tube rack - This is to hold the test tubes during the experiment Justification for the choice of equipment: I have chosen to use most of the equipment above due to accuracy and in order to prevent a high percentage error I have chosen to use measuring syringes to measure the volumes of substances used since it is more accurate than a pipette. I will use an electronic water bath for maintaining the mixture at a temperature above room temperature since the temperature is more accurate than a water bath above a Bunsen burner. I will have to use ice from the freezer to reduce the temperature of the mixture to 10 degrees Celsius. A 100 degrees Celsius thermometer will provide temperature results of a sufficient accuracy (to 1OoC). The pH buffer range will be pre-prepared therefore I do not have to concern myself with measuring and maintaining pH levels. Test tubes are used instead of a conical flask because of its small surface area. Variables: Dependent variables * Rate of breakdown of starch * Time Independent Variable * Temperature of solution Fixed Variables * Volume of starch solution * Volume of amylase solution * Concentration of amylase solution * Concentration of starch solution * Volume of iodine * Agitation * Buffer Number of observations: I have chosen to repeat the experiment 3 times because it therefore allows me to calculate an average time. ...read more.


This is because the starch solution is neutral and in the previous investigation (for pH) 2cm3 of the appropriate buffer was added. If the 2cm3 of water were not added then it would not be a fair test since the volumes used in each part of the investigation would be different. If they were different then this would affect the results since the solution would be of different concentrations and therefore one would react faster than the other would. Safety Precautions: * I will have to be careful when using the enzyme solution, as it is dangerous if it enters ones eye, so I will attempt to overcome this problem by wearing goggles. * Iodine solution is a bleaching agent, so I will be wearing a lab coat so it doesn't bleach my clothes. * Its is also lethal when inhaled, swallowed and ones eyes, so I'll try avoid these. * I will also use a peg to retrieve the test tubes from the boiling water baths, if my skin comes in contact with the water from the water bath, I could suffer severe burns. * I also will be using glassware during the experiment so I will have to be cautious about that. * Also because the calorimeter and the water bath are electronic, I will avoid spilling any of the solutions near the electrical sockets in order to avoid an electric shock. ...read more.

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