• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Effects of Abiotic & Biotic Features on the Distribution of Plants and Animals in Terrestrial & Aquatic Habitats

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The Effects of Abiotic & Biotic Features on the Distribution of Plants and Animals in Terrestrial & Aquatic Habitats There are many abiotic (physical) factors which affect the distribution of plants and animal in their habitats. Light is a major abiotic factor, as it is the source of energy for photosynthesis, which in turn means it influences all producers and consumers (directly or not). The amount of light available is a major factor in deciding where plants can survive. For instance terrestrial plants which are shade-tolerant can be found underneath trees, whereas those who are not only grow where there is a plentiful supply of sunlight. Similarly in aquatic environments some plants must have leaves on the surface of the water in order to photosynthesise, while others can survive under the water, where less light can penetrate. The temperature of a habitat will provide further limitations to which organisms can survive there. Nearly all living organisms have an optimum temperature range to live, so changes to the temperature will affect the rate they grow, and will affect their evolution. ...read more.

Middle

So depending on the amount of water available different species of plants will be distributed accordingly. Terrestrial animals are also heavily affected by the availability of water, meaning they are also affected by the availability of water. Animals which are evolved to conserve water and to lose as little through evaporation will be found in dry hotter environments, while those who are not as good at that will be found in the places where water is less scarce. Salinity can affect the distribution of organisms, especially plants because it is harder for water to pass into the roots by osmosis when outside the roots there is a high water potential. Halophytes are plants which can tolerate high levels of salt, they are usually found in estuaries and salt marshes, where other plants cannot be found. In aquatic habitats the flow of water can effect the distribution of organisms. The flow of water can move organisms from one place to another; very fast flowing water can often make it difficult for any organisms to survive in one place, as they are washed away. ...read more.

Conclusion

Organisms don't just have to compete with others from within their species (intraspecific competition) but also with organisms from other species (interspecific competition). This competition can lead to the displacement of one species - i.e. their distribution. While organisms have to deal with competition they also have predation to cope with. The distribution of a species is also determined by the presence or absence of prey and/or predators. Some organisms produce chemicals which repel other organisms (which may be of the same species - or not). This mostly applies to terrestrial animals that use chemicals to mark their territories, in order to deter other members of the species. This can reduce the distribution of some organisms in an area. Some ants produce pheromones when in danger, these pheromones warn other members of the species of the danger. The dispersion of some plants rely upon animals to disperse their seeds. Similarly many plants rely on insects for pollination, and without the insect they would be unable to reproduce effectively. Probably the most significant biotic factor which affects organisms is the influence of humans, we often dictate which organisms grow where, while being hunters, fishers, farmers, developers and polluters to name a few activities which affect other organisms. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Effect of nitrate concentration on the growth of Duckweeds

    5 star(s)

    at the standard deviation value, the o.4 % value is big so it means that the result values are quite spread out this could be the reason why the mean is smaller than the mean of 0%. As it is this spread out data that resulted in the average value

  2. Marked by a teacher

    How does the Variety of plant species change between grassland and woodland?

    4 star(s)

    * Work out a running total and a running mean as results are taken. * Take 15 samples after initial sample has been carried out which will not be counted but should improve accuracy. * Try to carry out investigation in both areas on the same day leaving another day in case of problems with the results.

  1. the effect of bile concentration on the activity of the enzyme lipase during the ...

    Subsequently this anomalous result must have resulted from us starting with a higher pH than the other experiments which means the enzyme was further away from its optimum pH 8 making this a limiting factor as it was not closer to its optimum like in the other experiments we carried out.

  2. An investigation into the distribution of adult and juvenile limpets on a rocky shoreline.

    * Make sure the cross staff and ranging pole is straight when holding on the shore, also, the surface should be flat but not a rock or a hole. It is because the would affect the independent variable - the shore height.

  1. out how different concentrations of the enzyme pectinase affect the degradation of the substrate ...

    an idea of the procedure of which I will perform and to see if the enzyme concentrations I have chosen are suitable and will work. Method: I will label all my beakers with their according pectinase concentration (0%, 50%, 75% and 100%).

  2. Investigating how prolonged exposure to its optimum temperature affects the respiration of yeast.

    * Amount of water mixed with the glucose and yeast. With this, the dilution of glucose and yeast remains the same, so there is the same proportion of particles available to react with each other. * pH must remain constant.

  1. Investigating the effects of different lead chloride concentrations on the growth of cress seedlings

    Most plants produce more glucose than they actually use, so they store it in the form of starch in the roots, stems, and leaves. When required the plants can then draw on these reserves for extra energy or building materials.

  2. Investigation into how Lichen growth is affected as you move further away from a ...

    Hawksworth, D.L. and Seaward, M.R.D. 1977. Lichenology in the British Isles 1568 - 1975. The Richmond Publishing Co. Ltd., 1977. 6. Kershaw, K.A. Physiological Ecology of Lichens, 1985. Cambridge University Press Cambridge. 7. Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work