• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The use of pectinase in fruit juice production

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The use of pectinase in fruit juice production I predict that there will be no juice produced to the apple sauce that had no enzyme and juice will produce to the apple sauce that had pectinase. A control is carried out in order to compare the rate of reaction between with pectinase and without pectin's. Pectin --> sugars + galataronic acid Pectin is a substance which helps to hold pant cell walls together. As a fruit ripens the plant produces proteolytic enzymes, which convert the insoluble protpectin of the unripe fruit into more soluble forms, causing the fruit to soften. When fruits are mashed and pressed to form juices these more soluble forms of pectin enter the juice, making it cloudy and causing the colour and flavour to deteriorate. Enzymes are specific in the reactions they catalyse, much more so than inorganic Catalysts. Normally, a given enzyme will Catalyse only one reaction, or type of reaction. The enzyme has an active site that helps it to recognise its substrate in a very specific way. Just like a key only fits into a specific lock, each enzyme has its own specific lock; each enzyme has its own specific substrate. This is called the lock and key theory. The enzymes never actually get consumed in the process; they just increase the rate of reactions. ...read more.

Middle

3. Mix carefully and leave to stand for 5 minutes. 4. Transfer the contents of the beakers to separate filter funnels and collect the juice produced in a graduated measuring cylinder. 5. Take reading of the juice collected. Results Table to shows apple juice in cm3 collected over time in minutes Time in min Volume in cm3 Pectinase Highest Lowest Average No Pectinase 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 0.50 1.00 1.00 0.50 0.75 0.00 2 1.00 1.50 1.50 1.00 1.25 0.00 3 1.50 2.00 2.00 1.50 1.75 0.00 4 2.00 2.25 2.25 2.00 2.13 0.00 5 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 0.00 6 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.75 0.00 7 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 0.00 8 3.25 3.00 3.25 3.00 3.13 0.00 Table to shows initial rate of the enzyme pectinase when breaking down pectin into sugars and galataronic acid Time in min Initial rate cm3 min-1 0 0 1 0.75 2 0.625 3 0.58 4 0.53 5 0.50 6 0.46 7 0.43 8 0.39 Analysis The hypothesis is proved that the break down of pectin with pectinase was successful and there was no reaction with the apple sauce that exclusive of pectinase. The pectinase causes disulphide bonds to break. These bonds help to maintain the shape of the enzyme molecules. ...read more.

Conclusion

After that, there was a gradually decrease of roughly 0.05 cm3. A graph showing the rate of reaction of the enzyme pectinase when breaking down pectin into sugars and galataronic acid is also drawn onto the back of the graph which shows the volume of apple juice in cm3 over time in minutes. Error bars provide a simple and clear way to represent the uncertainty of each point on a graph. Error bars are drawn onto the graph, which shows the volume of apple juice in cm3 over time in minutes. There were big error bars from minute 1 to minute 4 intervals ; they all have a range of 0.5cm3 within the average. Then the error bar was minimised to within a narrower range of 0.25cm3 at 4th and 8th minute intervals. There was no error bar at 5th, 6th and 7th minute intervals, which indicates that the experiment results were agreed by both of the groups. The bigger the error bars, indicates the more inaccurate of the results that were collated hence the results were unreliable and which would effect our prediction of the outcome of the experiment. Evaluation There were insufficient sets of results in order to make this experiment reliable since there were only two sets of results. To improve the accuracy of this experiment, repeats should be done. The apple sauce that was prepared had a big impact on the experiment. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

4 star(s)

****
A full account of the investigation. Occasionally a lack of clarification or detail reduces the quality.

Marked by teacher Adam Roberts 29/05/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Analysing the vitamin C content in different fruit juices

    5 star(s)

    the ascorbic acid in the solution has been used up, there will be no any electrons available for reducing the DCPIPH and the solution will remain pink due to the DCPIPH. The end point is a pink colour that remains for 10 seconds or more.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Effect of temperature on the enzyme pectinase in fruit juice production.

    3 star(s)

    attached to it. Pectin is found naturally in fruits, where its function is to help hold plant cell walls together, they are bound together by calcium ions (Calcium Pectate) and are important components of the first layers of a cell wall to be laid down, which is known as the middle lamella.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Effect of pH on Pectinase

    3 star(s)

    However, if the pH were to change from the optimum level then it would affect the charge on the active site of the enzyme, or the charge on the substrate molecules, in this experiment on the apple puree. Changes in charge on the active site or substrate molecules will slow

  2. To investigate how temperature affects the concentration of vitamin C in orange juice (specifically ...

    It is involved in the production of white blood cells, T-cells and macrophages. Without Vitamin C in sufficient quantities, our own body's best defence against disease is left without ammunition. This has a distinct bearing on how much Vitamin C to take.

  1. The Effect of Concentration on Pectinase Using Apple

    collected will not exceed this value and the cylinders are marked to a good degree of accuracy. Filtering the apple pulp and pectinase solution is the best way to obtain the juice from the pulp and this method also allows measurements over time to be taken.

  2. Investigating The Activity Of The Enzyme Lipase On Milk

    This explains why the rate of reaction dropped suddenly and the time taken slowed down at 40�C. The rate of reaction graph also shows a good trend which backs up my prediction because they react faster and faster until 37�C when they reach their peak and then they significantly slow down.

  1. Investigating how different concentrations of a antibiotic effects the growth of a bacterium.

    Between 0 and 0.00001 the difference can be seen as 0.050cm whereas between the final two concentrations the difference was a large as 0.5. The scientific information that will support the different conclusions that have been made, are concerned with the penicillin and antibiotics and how they affect the bacterial growth and binary fission.

  2. Type - 1 Hypersensitivity Reaction

    T-lymphocytes; produce antibodies and cytokines to the innate immunity, macrophages (antigen-presenting cells), present antigens to the helper T-cells, (B-cells, are also antigen presenting cells). Synthetic compounds, toxins, and their native toxins are capable of affecting an immune or inflammatory response, which is achieved through the T.H Lymphocytes (helper T.cells).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work