• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The use of pectinase in fruit juice production

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The use of pectinase in fruit juice production I predict that there will be no juice produced to the apple sauce that had no enzyme and juice will produce to the apple sauce that had pectinase. A control is carried out in order to compare the rate of reaction between with pectinase and without pectin's. Pectin --> sugars + galataronic acid Pectin is a substance which helps to hold pant cell walls together. As a fruit ripens the plant produces proteolytic enzymes, which convert the insoluble protpectin of the unripe fruit into more soluble forms, causing the fruit to soften. When fruits are mashed and pressed to form juices these more soluble forms of pectin enter the juice, making it cloudy and causing the colour and flavour to deteriorate. Enzymes are specific in the reactions they catalyse, much more so than inorganic Catalysts. Normally, a given enzyme will Catalyse only one reaction, or type of reaction. The enzyme has an active site that helps it to recognise its substrate in a very specific way. Just like a key only fits into a specific lock, each enzyme has its own specific lock; each enzyme has its own specific substrate. This is called the lock and key theory. The enzymes never actually get consumed in the process; they just increase the rate of reactions. ...read more.

Middle

3. Mix carefully and leave to stand for 5 minutes. 4. Transfer the contents of the beakers to separate filter funnels and collect the juice produced in a graduated measuring cylinder. 5. Take reading of the juice collected. Results Table to shows apple juice in cm3 collected over time in minutes Time in min Volume in cm3 Pectinase Highest Lowest Average No Pectinase 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 0.50 1.00 1.00 0.50 0.75 0.00 2 1.00 1.50 1.50 1.00 1.25 0.00 3 1.50 2.00 2.00 1.50 1.75 0.00 4 2.00 2.25 2.25 2.00 2.13 0.00 5 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 0.00 6 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.75 0.00 7 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 0.00 8 3.25 3.00 3.25 3.00 3.13 0.00 Table to shows initial rate of the enzyme pectinase when breaking down pectin into sugars and galataronic acid Time in min Initial rate cm3 min-1 0 0 1 0.75 2 0.625 3 0.58 4 0.53 5 0.50 6 0.46 7 0.43 8 0.39 Analysis The hypothesis is proved that the break down of pectin with pectinase was successful and there was no reaction with the apple sauce that exclusive of pectinase. The pectinase causes disulphide bonds to break. These bonds help to maintain the shape of the enzyme molecules. ...read more.

Conclusion

After that, there was a gradually decrease of roughly 0.05 cm3. A graph showing the rate of reaction of the enzyme pectinase when breaking down pectin into sugars and galataronic acid is also drawn onto the back of the graph which shows the volume of apple juice in cm3 over time in minutes. Error bars provide a simple and clear way to represent the uncertainty of each point on a graph. Error bars are drawn onto the graph, which shows the volume of apple juice in cm3 over time in minutes. There were big error bars from minute 1 to minute 4 intervals ; they all have a range of 0.5cm3 within the average. Then the error bar was minimised to within a narrower range of 0.25cm3 at 4th and 8th minute intervals. There was no error bar at 5th, 6th and 7th minute intervals, which indicates that the experiment results were agreed by both of the groups. The bigger the error bars, indicates the more inaccurate of the results that were collated hence the results were unreliable and which would effect our prediction of the outcome of the experiment. Evaluation There were insufficient sets of results in order to make this experiment reliable since there were only two sets of results. To improve the accuracy of this experiment, repeats should be done. The apple sauce that was prepared had a big impact on the experiment. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

4 star(s)

****
A full account of the investigation. Occasionally a lack of clarification or detail reduces the quality.

Marked by teacher Adam Roberts 29/05/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Effect of pH on Pectinase

    3 star(s)

    There are 3 ways pH can alter enzyme activity. Every enzyme has an optimum pH. This is a pH level that the enzyme works fastest at. For example Peptidase, found in the acidic environment of the stomach has an optimum pH of 2.4, this is a highly acidic pH.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Beetroot Practical Write up

    3 star(s)

    This is because the ethanol affects the hydrogen bonding in both the lipids and peptide bonds in proteins, as this is what holds the structure together. Beetroot: The betacyanin pigment of beetroot is located in the sap vacuole and, "by means of the properties of the tonoplast and cell membrane,

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Effect of temperature on the enzyme pectinase in fruit juice production.

    3 star(s)

    attached to it. Pectin is found naturally in fruits, where its function is to help hold plant cell walls together, they are bound together by calcium ions (Calcium Pectate) and are important components of the first layers of a cell wall to be laid down, which is known as the middle lamella.

  2. The Effect of Concentration on Pectinase Using Apple

    collected will not exceed this value and the cylinders are marked to a good degree of accuracy. Filtering the apple pulp and pectinase solution is the best way to obtain the juice from the pulp and this method also allows measurements over time to be taken.

  1. Type - 1 Hypersensitivity Reaction

    an increase in the permeability of the capillary vessels, which are located in the endothelial lining of all smooth muscle. Consequently, the permeability and vasodilation of the blood vessels enables more antibodies, in the bloodstream to travel to the region of the antigens, (thus aiding a damaged tissue).

  2. The use of pectinase in fruit juice production

    The contents of this test tube acted as a control because it indicated that buffer solution has no effect on the apple sauce on its own which in turn showed that pectinase is the one which is responsible for the greater volume of apple juice produced.

  1. Investigation of the effect of adding different concentrations of NaCl to an enzyme-substrate (amylase-starch) ...

    Variables � Volume of amylase in the solution will remain constant. This will be very important because slightly more enzymes could unbalance the results completely as more enzymes would be available to break down the starch molecules. � Volume of starch in the solution will remain constant.

  2. Investigating Catalase Activity in Different Plant Tissues.

    Table of results for catalase activity at different pHs for carrot pH Time/s Rate/s Average rate/1/s 4 60 0.017 65 0.015 0.017 58 0.017 56 0.018 6 18 0.056 (anomalous result) 25 0.040 0.046 24 0.042 22 0.046 7 16 0.063 14 0.071 0.068 14 0.071 15 0.067 8 20 0.050 23 0.044 0.045 28 0.038 (anomalous result)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work