• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The use of pectinase in fruit juice production

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The use of pectinase in fruit juice production I predict that there will be no juice produced to the apple sauce that had no enzyme and juice will produce to the apple sauce that had pectinase. A control is carried out in order to compare the rate of reaction between with pectinase and without pectin's. Pectin --> sugars + galataronic acid Pectin is a substance which helps to hold pant cell walls together. As a fruit ripens the plant produces proteolytic enzymes, which convert the insoluble protpectin of the unripe fruit into more soluble forms, causing the fruit to soften. When fruits are mashed and pressed to form juices these more soluble forms of pectin enter the juice, making it cloudy and causing the colour and flavour to deteriorate. Enzymes are specific in the reactions they catalyse, much more so than inorganic Catalysts. Normally, a given enzyme will Catalyse only one reaction, or type of reaction. The enzyme has an active site that helps it to recognise its substrate in a very specific way. Just like a key only fits into a specific lock, each enzyme has its own specific lock; each enzyme has its own specific substrate. This is called the lock and key theory. The enzymes never actually get consumed in the process; they just increase the rate of reactions. ...read more.

Middle

3. Mix carefully and leave to stand for 5 minutes. 4. Transfer the contents of the beakers to separate filter funnels and collect the juice produced in a graduated measuring cylinder. 5. Take reading of the juice collected. Results Table to shows apple juice in cm3 collected over time in minutes Time in min Volume in cm3 Pectinase Highest Lowest Average No Pectinase 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 0.50 1.00 1.00 0.50 0.75 0.00 2 1.00 1.50 1.50 1.00 1.25 0.00 3 1.50 2.00 2.00 1.50 1.75 0.00 4 2.00 2.25 2.25 2.00 2.13 0.00 5 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 0.00 6 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.75 0.00 7 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 0.00 8 3.25 3.00 3.25 3.00 3.13 0.00 Table to shows initial rate of the enzyme pectinase when breaking down pectin into sugars and galataronic acid Time in min Initial rate cm3 min-1 0 0 1 0.75 2 0.625 3 0.58 4 0.53 5 0.50 6 0.46 7 0.43 8 0.39 Analysis The hypothesis is proved that the break down of pectin with pectinase was successful and there was no reaction with the apple sauce that exclusive of pectinase. The pectinase causes disulphide bonds to break. These bonds help to maintain the shape of the enzyme molecules. ...read more.

Conclusion

After that, there was a gradually decrease of roughly 0.05 cm3. A graph showing the rate of reaction of the enzyme pectinase when breaking down pectin into sugars and galataronic acid is also drawn onto the back of the graph which shows the volume of apple juice in cm3 over time in minutes. Error bars provide a simple and clear way to represent the uncertainty of each point on a graph. Error bars are drawn onto the graph, which shows the volume of apple juice in cm3 over time in minutes. There were big error bars from minute 1 to minute 4 intervals ; they all have a range of 0.5cm3 within the average. Then the error bar was minimised to within a narrower range of 0.25cm3 at 4th and 8th minute intervals. There was no error bar at 5th, 6th and 7th minute intervals, which indicates that the experiment results were agreed by both of the groups. The bigger the error bars, indicates the more inaccurate of the results that were collated hence the results were unreliable and which would effect our prediction of the outcome of the experiment. Evaluation There were insufficient sets of results in order to make this experiment reliable since there were only two sets of results. To improve the accuracy of this experiment, repeats should be done. The apple sauce that was prepared had a big impact on the experiment. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

4 star(s)

****
A full account of the investigation. Occasionally a lack of clarification or detail reduces the quality.

Marked by teacher Adam Roberts 29/05/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Analysing the vitamin C content in different fruit juices

    5 star(s)

    Problem statement 1. Which type of fruit juices has the highest concentration of vitamin C? 2. Between freshly prepared fruit juices and carton fruit juices, which of them has t higher concentration of vitamin C? Hypothesis 1. The orange juice has the highest concentration of vitamin C among the fruit juices tested.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    effect of concentration of copper sulphate on the action of amylase to break down ...

    4 star(s)

    By doing the preliminary experiment I can make changes to the apparatus and methods to make up a better experiment that will provide meaningful results. I have found out that it is quite difficult to determine an end point by using bare eyes to over serve the colour change; it

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Effect of temperature and inhibition on the rate of pepsin digestion.

    The only way to determine whether starch is a competitive or noncompetitive inhibitor would be to conduct tests with different concentrations of starch and egg white and observe the rate of digestion. From this data, it would be possible to construct a graph of rate versus substrate concentration.

  2. To investigate how temperature affects the concentration of vitamin C in orange juice (specifically ...

    This is similar to nutrition and medicine. Nutrition is the natural bolstering of our own systems. Medicine, on the contrary, is foreign and needs to be used with corresponding care. Due to the strong relationship between C and our immune systems, it is not surprising that viral and bacterial infections

  1. To find out how different concentrations of sucrose solution affect the incipient plasmolysis of ...

    excess solution on the vegetable cylinder which will improve the reliability of the mass obtained which will improve the accuracy of the mass measured. * Tile - used to place the root vegetable on before cutting it to its appropriate size prevents work area from becoming damaged.

  2. Type - 1 Hypersensitivity Reaction

    Rearrangements in the DNA creates various antibody molecules known as immunoglobulins, the body produces 5 classes, IgM, IgD IgA, IgG, and igE. These immunoglobulins travel through the bloodstream and merge with antigens thus, deactivating antigens this is achieved because when an antigen is present the dendritic cells are altered.

  1. The Effect Of Copper Sulphate On Pepsin Activity.

    Risk Assessment Copper sulphate Harmful if swallowed. Solutions equal or greater the 1M should be labelled HARMFUL. It may also be irritating to the eyes, skin and has been known to sensitise the skin. It is very toxic to the aquatic environment and may cause long-term adverse effects.

  2. Investigating the effect of temperature on the activity of free and immobilised enzymes.

    A higher temperature will also mean more lactose molecules will have an energy above the activation energy, so there will be more collisions with the right activation energy. This will result in the rate of reaction increasing for both free and immobilized enzymes.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work