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To investigate how different factors affect the rate of breakdown of sucrose by the enzyme sucrase.

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Introduction

Biology coursework- Hadleigh Measham - To investigate how different factors affect the rate of breakdown of sucrose by the enzyme sucrase. Planning Background Information In living organisms all cells work together and produce useful substances and waste from rapid, simultaneous reactions. These reactions satisfy the need of the cells. Every reaction that occurs in the body is controlled by enzymes. These are organic catalysts which are always either simple globular proteins or conjugated proteins. The work of enzymes is to increase rates of reactions and they are able to be used more than once. They are soluble in water as they work in aqueous conditions in living cells. They calalyse substrates into products. All enzymes have specific tertiary (3- dimensional) shapes with an active site. This is the area in which the substrate is catalysed. Enzymes can only catalyse certain substrates as the active site's shape varies (enzymes specificity). This is known as the lock and key mechanism. Enzymes cause the make or break of bonds of substrates but cannot change the direction of a reaction, only speed it up. ...read more.

Middle

This will cause the collapse of the tertiary structure of the enzyme. When this happens the enzyme become denatured. There is a specific temperature of all enzymes where the enzymes gain their maximum potential of heat energy but do not lose their tertiary structure. This is called their optimum temperature. This means the enzyme may speed up the rate of the reaction to its greatest. The optimum temperature varies from enzyme to enzyme and when this is exceeded the enzyme starts to become denatured. In this experiment I hope to obtain results on how long it takes for the substrate to be catalysed by the enzyme to form glucose and fructose. To determine when glucose is formed we will use clinistix to inform us. When the tip of the clinistix (pink) turns blue we will know glucose is present. This is when we will stop timing. To obtain the rate of the reaction from this time I will simply take the recipricol of it. Method To begin the experiment the following list of apparatus must be assembled as shown in the diagram below. ...read more.

Conclusion

We must also only use the same volume and concentration of solution each time and we must only vary the temperature. We take a greater number of readings around the enzymes temperature (35, 40, 45 degrees celsius) for greater accuracy. We know the optimum temperature for sucrase is 40 C. (Acknowledgment : Advanced Human Biology, J. Simpkins and J.I. Williams) Hypothesis For each and every enzyme reaction the temperature coefficient law (Q10) is vital for predicting rates of reactions. Q10 = Rate of reaction at T + 10 C Rate of reaction at T (Acknowledgment : Advanced Human Biology, J. Simpkins and J. I. Williams) This equation expresses the effect of a 10 C on the rate of reaction. According to this equation if I were to use the time taken as the rate of reaction it would half every 10 C temperature rise, however as I am using the reciprocol it will double. With this in mind I am finally able to predict that the rate of reaction will increase with the temperature and as the temperature increases by 10 C the rate will double. This is until the temperature exceeds the optimum temperature. I predict that the rate of reaction is proportional to temperature. ...read more.

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