• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Americanization, Globalization and Secularization

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Americanization, Globalization and Secularization: Understanding the Convergence of Media Systems and Political Communication in the U.S. and Western Europe A powerful trend is clearly underway in the direction of greater similarity in the way the public sphere is structured across the world. In their products, in their professional practices and cultures, in their systems of relationships with other political and social institutions, media systems across the world are becoming increasingly alike. Political systems, meanwile, are becoming increasingly similar in the patterns of communication they incorporate. We will explore this trend toward global homogenization of media systems and the public sphere, focusing particularly on the relations between media and political systems, and on the industrialized, capitalist democracies of Western Europe and North America. We will organize our discussion of how to account for this trend around two pairs of contrasting perspectives. Much of the literature on homogenization sees it in terms of Americanization or globalization: that is, in terms of forces external to the national social and political systems in which media systems were previously rooted. ...read more.

Middle

The U.S. was once almost alone among industrialized countries in its system of commercial broadcasting; now commercial broadcasting is becoming the norm. The model of information-oriented, politically-neutral professionalism that has prevailed in the U.S. and to a somewhat lesser degree in Britain increasingly dominates the news media worldwide. The personalized, media-centered forms of election campaigning, using techniques similar to consumer product marketing, that again were pioneered in the U.S., similarly are becoming more and more common in European politics (Swanson & Mancini, 1996; Butler & Ranney, 1992). It is clear too that direct cultural diffusion from the United States has played a role in these changes. American concepts of journalistic professionalism and press freedom based in privately owned media, for example, were actively spread by the government- sponsored "free press crusade" of the early Cold War period (Blanchard, 1986), and reinforced in later years by a variety of cultural influences, ranging from professional education and academic research in U.S. universities and private research institutes (Tunstall, 1977; Mancini, 2000), to internationally circulated media like the Herald-Tribune and CNN and products of popular culture like the film All the President's Men.1[1] American campaign consultants ...read more.

Conclusion

One is European integration. With the Television without Frontiers Directive of 1989, the European Union embarked deliberately on an attempt to create a common broadcasting market, an objective which required harmonization of regulatory regimes across the continent. This and other elements of European law have undercut the earlier multiplicity of communication policies and patterns of relationship between the media and national political systems. Closely related is a strong trend toward internationalization of media ownership. The search for ever greater amounts of capital to invest in new technologies and to compete in liberalized international markets has produced a strong trend toward the development of multinational media corporations (Herman & McChesney, 1997). Clearly such corporations, to achieve economies of scale and scope and to take advantage of market integration, tend to internationalize both products and production and distribution processes, contributing further to the homogenization of strategies and professional practices. The extra-national circulation of professionalism, the integration of company management within the same group and the universal circulation of the same products can only weaken those national characteristics that, at least in part, had made economic and entrepreneurial systems of individual countries different from each other. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Media section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Media essays

  1. Moral Panic and media folk devils.

    It was visible that they'd been affected as on many subjects their views contradicted scientific evidence on the subjects in question and many associated subjects such as computer games to children whereas many gamers are adults. Issues on drugs, race, and crime seem to affect both age groups and both stated them as the main problems in society.

  2. Ireland has a long history of censorship but this has been employed for different ...

    It was the: 'means whereby the end of sovereignty might be freely expressed in the form of an independent foreign policy - a policy independent, above all, of British policy' (Fanning 1982, cited by O'Drisceoil). To achieve this, censorship was necessary and the Emergency Power's Act was imposed.

  1. How does the media represent female bodies?

    I thought it was important to look into how many pages women's magazines spent on criticising other women and I found that 49 pages between these 5 magazines were used to make negative comments. I included any images from the circle of shame, where magazines circle an imperfection such as

  2. Does the globalisation of television bring a threat to national and local cultural identities? ...

    Going back to the first definition of culture, we know that what is around us affect us. Since last 30 or 40 years, media are one of the main stimuli around us. So are the influences that help us most to create culture.

  1. Cultural and Media Analysis

    "Ostensibly, Fight Club Appears to be a critique of late capitalist society...But Fight Club is less interested in attacking the broader material relations of power and strategies of domination and exploitation associated with neoliberal capitalism than it is in

  2. What do you understand by the phrase 'Trial by Media'? What are the implications ...

    Antonio Gramsci devised the idea of hegemonic theory in the 19th century; Stuart Hall later developed the idea. Gramsci's theory is founded on the basis that the subordinate population is socialised into dominant (capitalist) ideological ways of thinking. The media, education, the church, and the family are argued as being agents of social control that legitimise ruling ideas.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work