• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Americanization, Globalization and Secularization

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Americanization, Globalization and Secularization: Understanding the Convergence of Media Systems and Political Communication in the U.S. and Western Europe A powerful trend is clearly underway in the direction of greater similarity in the way the public sphere is structured across the world. In their products, in their professional practices and cultures, in their systems of relationships with other political and social institutions, media systems across the world are becoming increasingly alike. Political systems, meanwile, are becoming increasingly similar in the patterns of communication they incorporate. We will explore this trend toward global homogenization of media systems and the public sphere, focusing particularly on the relations between media and political systems, and on the industrialized, capitalist democracies of Western Europe and North America. We will organize our discussion of how to account for this trend around two pairs of contrasting perspectives. Much of the literature on homogenization sees it in terms of Americanization or globalization: that is, in terms of forces external to the national social and political systems in which media systems were previously rooted. ...read more.

Middle

The U.S. was once almost alone among industrialized countries in its system of commercial broadcasting; now commercial broadcasting is becoming the norm. The model of information-oriented, politically-neutral professionalism that has prevailed in the U.S. and to a somewhat lesser degree in Britain increasingly dominates the news media worldwide. The personalized, media-centered forms of election campaigning, using techniques similar to consumer product marketing, that again were pioneered in the U.S., similarly are becoming more and more common in European politics (Swanson & Mancini, 1996; Butler & Ranney, 1992). It is clear too that direct cultural diffusion from the United States has played a role in these changes. American concepts of journalistic professionalism and press freedom based in privately owned media, for example, were actively spread by the government- sponsored "free press crusade" of the early Cold War period (Blanchard, 1986), and reinforced in later years by a variety of cultural influences, ranging from professional education and academic research in U.S. universities and private research institutes (Tunstall, 1977; Mancini, 2000), to internationally circulated media like the Herald-Tribune and CNN and products of popular culture like the film All the President's Men.1[1] American campaign consultants ...read more.

Conclusion

One is European integration. With the Television without Frontiers Directive of 1989, the European Union embarked deliberately on an attempt to create a common broadcasting market, an objective which required harmonization of regulatory regimes across the continent. This and other elements of European law have undercut the earlier multiplicity of communication policies and patterns of relationship between the media and national political systems. Closely related is a strong trend toward internationalization of media ownership. The search for ever greater amounts of capital to invest in new technologies and to compete in liberalized international markets has produced a strong trend toward the development of multinational media corporations (Herman & McChesney, 1997). Clearly such corporations, to achieve economies of scale and scope and to take advantage of market integration, tend to internationalize both products and production and distribution processes, contributing further to the homogenization of strategies and professional practices. The extra-national circulation of professionalism, the integration of company management within the same group and the universal circulation of the same products can only weaken those national characteristics that, at least in part, had made economic and entrepreneurial systems of individual countries different from each other. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Media section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Media essays

  1. Moral Panic and media folk devils.

    84% of the people asked said they thought that the UK currently has a problem with its immigration laws and the amount of immigrants allowed to enter the country. 4. 52% said they thought that computer games could cause problems to people who play; they also stereotyped computer game

  2. Ireland has a long history of censorship but this has been employed for different ...

    Very little occurred in wartime Ireland without the G2's knowledge. Both a security and political censorship became a central player in de Valera's 'double game' and covered the press, publications of all kinds, film and postal, telegraphic and telephonic communications.

  1. What do you understand by the phrase 'Trial by Media'? What are the implications ...

    In order to coerce the public into accepting this belief, the government has reasoned that; 'it is highly questionable that the nuclear industry, premiership football, cinemas, West End theatres and tube trains can operate safely'(as a result of this action).

  2. Cultural and Media Analysis

    This in essence places the men and women as being in binary opposition to one another. This is not to suggest that men are not looked at during the film of course this would be futile. But what Mulvey suggests is that the men are looked at by other men,

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work