• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

cultural deprivation theory

Extracts from this document...


Cultural Deprivation Theory as an explanation of working class underachievement Cultural deprivation is the lack of certain norms (rules of behaviour in social situations), values (belief that something is worthwhile), attitudes and skills. But in this case it's necessary for educational success. Working class children are less likely to succeed because they are less likely to be found in nursery schools, less likely to go to university and more likely to be poor readers when they start school, more likely to be in lower sets and streams in secondary school, more likely to leave school early, more likely to underachieve at GCSEs and a level, more likely to be excluded and suspended .This is because the middle-class culture children are adequately prepared for school, but it's totally reverse for working-class culture; it basically fails to prepare children adequately for educational success. Cultural deprivation has been identified as one reason why the working class children are generally achieving less than middle class pupils. ...read more.


Immediate gratification Working class children are encouraged by their parents to "take what they can get, when they can get it". Leaving school at the earliest opportunity is a form of "immediate gratification", since the working class child can start to earn money at an earlier age than their middle-class peers. Key sociologists Hyman - The working class have a self imposed barrier against education. They accept that they can't get far, and hence they don't. Bernstein - Did a study on speech codes - he found two types of speech. What he called 'elaborated code' and then 'restricted code'. He said that only the middle class had access to the elaborate speech, which is essential to academic studies, whereas the working class were trapped in the use of restricted codes even in written work. Sugarman - Talks about how the working class goes for immediate gratification more than the middle class. But the middle class go to university so in the long term they're better off the working class are more tempted by full time work at ages 16 or 18. ...read more.


However, there is an element of attractive common sense appeal to the idea. There are two questions to be considered Here: � Is there a culture or cycle of disadvantage? � Is the culture of working class people different or deficient? Material Deprivation Is The Most Important Barrier To Educational Attainment Material deprivation is a lack of money, which leads to disadvantages, such as unhealthy diet and a lack of materials such as computer and textbooks. J.W.B Douglas examined education of 5,362 British children and grouped the children in terms of their ability, which was measured by IQ tests. He then divided them into four social class groupings and found significant variations between students of a similar ability but who were from different social backgrounds. Douglas believed that underachievement in education was related to a number of factors. These were the students health, the size of the students family and the quality of the school they attended. With health, working class children tend to have a poor diet, which leads to ill health. This in turn, leads to poor attendance and therefore children cannot catch up on work missed and so underachieve in exams. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Sociological Differentiation & Stratification section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Sociological Differentiation & Stratification essays

  1. Demography topic revision notes. The study of populations and their characteristics is called ...

    For example, in every single year from 1946 to 1978, more people left the UK to settle elsewhere than arrived to live in the UK. From 1900 until the Second World War (1939-45), the largest immigrant group to the UK were the Irish, mainly for economic reasons, followed by Eastern

  2. Is the Underachievement of Ethnic Minority Children due to a Racist School System?

    Still for whatever reason it is clear that in Norwich and the rest of the country that there are teachers that are turning their backs on children who are being racial abused. So far I have got the feeling that racism in my respondents view is the main factor to ethnic minority underachievement in education.

  1. An investigation into people(TM)s belief about Hell

    questionnaire is less-time consuming than methods such as interviews, thus allowing extra time for the processing of data. The questionnaire will start by asking whether the participant is religious or not. This causes a problem as in sociology there is a large debate as to the meaning of the term


    The interaction, even conflict, between those members of Malaysia's "new middle class" and its equally new under classes produce the culture of modern Kuala Lumpur (Bunn, 1990). The growing size of the class of what The New Straits Times calls the Not Quite Theres is significant for developments in areas with which social scientists have more traditionally been concerned.


    Perhaps then we need to look more closely at what being deprived materially and culturally does to a child and its family. Surely poverty within the home has a knock- on effect in terms of individual school performance? Heaton and Lawson ("Education and Training")

  2. Sociological models of health

    (Haralambos, 2008) The Interactionists perspective of health ?Symbolic interactionism has probably been the most influential theoretical approach in the sociology of health? (Haralambos, 2008).

  1. Identify and briefly describe the discriminatory practices for each case study

    having the correct equipment necessary for him to visit the Day Centre. If this is reported the manager may get in trouble because it is up to them to make the arrangements for disabled people like ramps, rails at the right level for support and a lift to allow service users to go up to the upper floors.

  2. Black Male perception, of Secondary School Attainment and Opportunities. "Explore reasons for the academic ...

    It about making sure the economics, cultural and other resources are shared out equitably. Associational justice: this refers to people?s ability to have a say and participate in decisions that affect their own lives. It?s about ensuring that people are enabled to be active and equitable participants in society.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work