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AS and A Level: Media
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(Gibbens 2006 p253) The high incidence of eating disorders among women has many influential factors. There are pressures from the media and the developing world for women to look specific way. The modern idea of thinness as attractive and healthy which is 'so pervasive in Western societies that it often goes unchallenged, despite the fact that it has not always been, nor is it everywhere the case.' (Brown & Jasper 1993 p16) The current 'Widespread preoccupation with weight, dieting and exercise has escalated to such a degree that it is an accepted, encouraged and rewarded aspect of social life.'
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The issue of media violence did not draw much attention in the United States until the Columbine school shootings on April 20, 1999. Two teenager students, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, carried weapons and killed thirteen people at Columbine High School. Harris and Klebold are both fans of violent video games such as Doom and Wolfenstein 3D. Many scholars and media analysts have used the case of Columbine High School Massacre and Devin Moore to defend their argument that media violence is the major cause of aggression and societal violence.
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Montag realizes that without being fully aware of it, that in two minutes he was essentially destroying something that took someone an entire lifetime to create. Censorship is a significant theme in Fahrenheit 451. Bradbury, through Beatty explains the origins of censorship. Bradbury suggests that there were two different factors that could contribute to book burning and censorship. The first factor is the ever increasing popularity of entertainment and mass media. Bradbury believed that the existence of technology gradually would make books obsolete.
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The first step is that the mass audience receives the message. The second step is that each individual shares their interpretation of the message with others and alter their interpretations to coincide with others in a social setting. This is why it is called the two-step flow theory. Katz and Lazarsfeld who developed this theory stated that there is not a direct impact on the audience but the influence of friends and family, or 'opinion leaders' plays a key part in the impact that the media does have. This means that if the message is not shared in a social setting, then there may be no impact at all, and the message is forgotten about.
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Adult violent offenders tend to have shown certain personality features as children, "one being they tended to have viewed violence on television." The amount of violence on television continues to grow. "A typical child watched on television one thousand murders and twenty five thousand acts of violence before finishing elementary school." When displayed this often, how can people not become desensitised to criminal acts? "By allowing this type of material to be openly exposed to the public we are endangering safety and society's values."
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Research by Critcher et al (1977) and Troyna (1981) had similar conclusions to Hartmann and Husband's in that the media created a negative perception of black people. For example, the media portrayed the ethnic minorities especially black people as lazy, violent, murderous and welfare cheaters. Troyna adds that the only difference he noticed was that in the 1960's the focus was on immigration problems and in the 1970's it was on the problems caused by the presence of these immigrants.
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The cheese mite movie contains insects eating some cheese, this movie was banned, movies like these were banned by the British Cheese Foundation because the content of the films could cause a decrease in the sale of cheese, and this can go onto causing other problem factors e.g. loss of jobs. To hide the facts of movies like these being banned the tents were shut down for safety reasons these were two reasons. One of the reasons could have been they didn't want the working class to see these films because of a revolt, or because the films were made out of nitrates which are highly flammable.
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The system of beliefs protected by works like the Index had to have been systems of thought in which certain texts possessed immense value and importance. Now, ideas, thoughts and information are made readily available to the public, and it gives people with conflicting and controversial thoughts a much more effective medium to spread their thoughts. This explosion in mediums of information is what has lead to such a controversy over what people can and cannot view and absorb. Why and how has censorship existed for so long and how has it changed over time?
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"The British media's coverage of asylum seekers and refugees is characterised by stereotyping, exaggeration and inaccurate language" - Discuss.
The headline also uses the word "handout", which hints that they are not working for their money and just getting it given to them. They could have easily replaced this term with "benefits" instead of the word "handout" but deliberately wrote this to represent them as unfair people who are out to get whatever they can. The writer also uses "average" to stress that asylum could be earning more than this significant figure. It then gives the higher possibility over the average to make asylum seem money grabbing.
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That the good people of Scotland should swallow such garbage wholesale is an indictment on the country which is famed for its welcome to visitors as well as the ambassadorship of the Tartan Army. On entering the UK, asylum seekers are eligible for support from the Government equivalent to 70% of the rate of Income Support, around �36 - only �10 of which is in cash, the rest in humiliating and stigmatising vouchers. That is 70% of what most in receipt of 100% income support would argue is not enough to live on.
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Pick a subculture(Youth, Sexuality, Age). How are these groups represented in the media?Why is this the case?
A tool in which the media can construct our ideologies is through the use of stereotypes. Stereotypes are used widely in society, they give a holistic, often negative representation of a social group (A.Briggs 2001 ) . If we hold a stereotype against a certain group our behaviour towards them may be a predicted and so misleading of their actual personae. Stereotypes are a ideological concept they use codes such as personality traits, mental and sexual characteristics which have a social significance for a particular group in society (T. O'Sullivan 1997). Stereotypes of isolated groups, including sexuality, can be inaccurate.
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Why do 'outsider groups' seek to influence or manage media coverage? How important is media coverage to such groups?
They tend to aim to get as many eligible members of that section as possible (http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/pressure_groups.htm, August 2002). And Grant went on to further state that cause groups 'represented some belief or principle, seeking to act in the interest of that cause.' These groups are often classified outside the mainstream, and tend to be based on membership without having the attachment of exclusivity to its name. Cause groups are somewhat different to sectional groups, as since they are promoting a cause, which could potentially, be supported by anybody. Usually membership for this reason is not restricted, and the more members it has, generally the more stronger the cause is.
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Following Foucault's conception of subject and power, how do you account For changes in the representations of sexuality in the media?
Representations of sexuality are a particularly interesting site of struggle and it has only been through recent (in particular) Feminist movements that many forms of representation in the media have been challenged. Foucault offers us a window into a history of subjectivity suggesting that power is not a characteristic of humans but a structured relationship between two or more bodies. Not only this but he also looks into conditions of power resistance and redefines left wing Marxist and Gramscian concepts of power and hegemonic rule. In order to evaluate the usefulness of Foucault's work in relation to the changes of the representation of sexuality in the media we must explore the media history for changes.
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Does the globalisation of television bring a threat to national and local cultural identities? Discuss in relation to any one television genre.
To the question: Do you know what an Esbart is? No more than a 20% of the interviewed men knew what is it. In women, results are a bit higher, but anyway the tax is very low; only a 40% of them knew the answer. However, the results for another question were very different. After the Catalan culture, I asked for the American one. The question was: Do you know what the Country Dance is? Surprisingly ALL the interviewed women know how the American dances are, even some of them had practice it.
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This essay based on wide background information. The writer of this essay tries to show the Hungarian stereotypes through theoretical view, statistical facts and mainly his own thoughts.
All people have a "common world", which causes the people to make grounded moral decisions. Ad 2.: After the Enlightenment, thinking is before action, and the Cartesian subject is defined as "cogito". These principles of the Enlightenment were queried by the biggest philosophers of the era, and the "Anti-Enlightenment" movement of the 19th century directly brought it into question. One of the biggest characters of social psychology, Jean-Jacques Rousseau wrote this in his cogitation about the Polish government: "The Polish customs ... have always the advantage that they evermore increase patriotism in every Pole, and they never want to be mixed with other foreign cultures."
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Discuss evidence from at least 2 areas where it has been argued that media affects public belief and / or behaviour.
Helping to organise meetings and strikes on a scale never seen before in the fight for justice and equality. Whilst in the wrong hands it can be a terrible thing, during World War II for example, Adolph Hitler utilised the media to legitimise the persecution of the Jews. The German people were bombarded with leaflets and propaganda films about a Jewish International network with plans to control the World Economy, affecting the German peoples beliefs and behaviour toward another culture.
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Does the media have an effect on the way people think and act, in reference to the issues of violence?
If violent influences from the media did not exist then why would regulations be created towards this? The media has become an essential element of society, performing three main duties: - to inform, educate and entertain, though it can be argued that these three duties can be overstepped and others can be undertaken: - to judge, to influence and to effect, which I believe that the media does do. The media communicates for a variety of purposes, one of these purposes is persuasion, i.e. trying to influence an audience's behavior, attitudes, beliefs and values, so I personally feel that the media can have an strong impact on the way people think, but a lesser impact to the way they act in reference to the issues of violence.
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With this control of what is portrayed in their media takes away free thought of the viewer (i.e. proletariat). the images or texts that are portrayed to a passive audience, is that of a sexual or gender biased content. In her work Forever Feminine: Women's Magazines and the Cult of Femininity Marjorie Ferguson describes the portrayal of a "cult of femininity" (Ferguson, 1983, cited in Trowler 1996, pp189) by this she means the way women's magazines pass on messages to the audience.
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When a country is at war, few can argue that a certain degree of censorship is required. It is necessary to limit the public's access to sensitive material concerning the war, such as strategies and the details of conferences, so the enemy cannot use the information to their advantage. While this form of censorship is understandable, it presents the problem of too much information being held back making the state totally in control, and the possible cover-up of a government faux-pas.
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Did the BATF and the FBI attempt to cover up agents conduct at the standoff with Branch Davidians in 1993
In concluding this, three prominent issues arise; * Policy and circumstances surrounding the possession of firearms. * Child abuse centred allegations. * The role of the media in the construction of public opinion. However, the official answer that apparently most Americans are willing to accept is that David Koresh was to blame. If he had not been a crazy religious fanatic who was "hell-bent on bringing down the lives of those around him", then the standoff would have ended peacefully.
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