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AS and A Level: Media
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Adolescents- threat or asset to society? Discuss how media portrayal of young people today and in the past influences the concept of adolescence. This assessment will look at the various media that was used in the past and is used presently
(Direct essays) In the 1960's there was a rebellion that swept across North America and Western Europe the term that is commonly used to refer to this is "counterculture". The counterculture included the sexual revolution which started in the late 1960's and early 1970's this change in sexual behaviour in young people took place mainly in the wealthy western countries but in particular the U.S.A. and the U.K. especially after the introduction of the birth control pill. (Jahsonic.com, 1996)
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He has developed a theory of three types of communication, which interact with each other instead of the domination of one type, as Habermas would propose. More empirically based studies are those of Katz and Lazarsfeld and Mc Combs and Shaw. The former have developed a 'two-step flow' theory of communication that has found that the influence of 'primary group' or 'opinion leaders' has much more impact upon others than the media has. The latter, through a study of undecided voters, found that an 'agenda setting function' is much more plausible idea of media influence than an influence of telling people what to think.
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These channels are from all over the world and accessible all over the world being offered through the technological advances of satellite and cable television. (Bilton et al, 2002) These advances allow access and 24 hour viewing, on stories and reports such as crime. An example being the trial of Michael Jackson in 2005, this was screened all over the world from the United States of America as it happened. It goes without saying that forms of media such as newspapers are there to make money, hence the media industry is now dominated by large companies and organisations which have gradually been incorporated into highly centralised media conglomerates.
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The motive of censorship is to stabilize and control society, over which government has control. Do you agree?
No matter with what sort of freedom people are being endowed, censorship defend national's pride and honor. Thus, the rationale of censorship is that it is necessary for the protection of the three basic social institutions; the family; the religion; the state. Censorship is the control of speech and other forms of human expressions which is entrusted for benefits of society. Precisely, it restricts children form being dragged to the wrong-path of life. It fights for child pornography, unwanted sexual expressions, restricting them by fixing age compulsion for being participants of lottery games, drugs, visiting restaurants. In addition, it uplifts social standard of society. It restores moral values of society and protects people form defamation and obscenity.
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Other explanations focus on changes internal to these national systems. An important distinction can also be made between mediacentric perspectives, for which changes in media systems are autonomous developments which then influence political and social systems, and those which see social and political changes as causally prior to media system change. Americanization and Globalization The phenomenon of homogenization in world media systems was first emphasized as a scholarly issue in the cultural imperialism literature of the 1960s and 1970s. Cultural imperialism theory was obviously a theory of external influence (e.g.
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"Any sociological explanation of the influence of the mass media needs to take into account the social situation of the audien
First, opinion leaders who pay close attention to the mass media and its messages, receive the information. Then, opinion leaders pass on their own interpretations in addition to the actual media content to the individuals (less active sections in the society). Since individuals are exposed to the media, there would be more likelihood for us to be influenced to the content formed by opinion leaders. It also helped explain why certain media campaigns may have failed to alter audience attitudes & behavior. This shows that the media can have little effect on people's opinion. It also emphasises the importance of relationships within the society.
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To what extent is the mass media politically powerful? There are two main issues regarding media influence in politics
Many researchers attribute enormous power to news media, claiming they have the ability to 'move and shake governments. Although there has been questioning since early conception of media outlets about influence media can assert over a mass audience, the question of weather the media is politically powerful has become a very hot topic since the early 1980's. This has been done by examining coverage of political matter through newspaper and television. There seems little doubt television is the publics main source of information for political matter in the UK (516 TV sets per 1000 people: 1998)
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My investigation is based on the issue 'should gay men be allowed to adopt'. My aims are: (1) To find out how the media portray gay adoption
The common assumption that people make is that children need female role models. This is also linked to the view that children are better off in a two parent, mixed gender family. Where this is problematic is that lots of children are not living in this 'perfect' nuclear family. For instance, there has been a rise in single parent families, meaning that many children are brought up by their mother with no male role model. Children also sometimes live with their father one week and their mother the next week. Ultimately the contemporary family is more diverse.
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Using Sociological evidence and concepts access the view that the mass media perpetuates stereotypes of gender
They believe that the media is patriarchal (perpetuates male power and privilege). They also believe that serious change has to be made in society and mainly the media on the roles of woman in society and believe it is unfair for an image to be created about them, this image being chosen by men who try to reflect what all woman should correspond with. The male gaze is one concept which opposes the idea of radical feminist thinkers. The male gaze shows woman from the viewpoint of how men wish to see them.
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The woman leaning on the object signifies that the woman cannot live without this perfume. This also could signify that she is weak or is nothing without the perfume. Being full of laughter and looking innocent signifies that this is stereotypically feminine in terms of gender. Another example is how the woman is represented standing sideways, wearing a white dress and is not standing straight. Her not standing straight signifies how weak and feeble she is. Not being able to stand straight signifies that the woman is not complete. Wearing white dresses signifies that the woman is a virgin, this is stereotypically feminine.
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Having Viewed 'Pretty Woman' And 'Thelma And Louise,' How Do You Think Women Are Represented In These Films And Hollywood In G
For example they've used it in the film XXX (triple X) as well. In 'Thelma and Louise' Thelma and Louise were represented as housewives, mainly because the film was set back in the past when women were not seen equal to men so there husband wouldn't let them work, which made them having to stay at home. In these two films women are sometimes show as stereotypes, just like the media it only shows bits and pieces of how women are really like. For example when Richard first met Vivien she had a blonde coloured wig which gives the audience an impression of her being a 'bimbo' which may was not true.
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The second study I will be looking at is Marjorie Ferguson (1983). Ferguson conducted a detailed content analysis and interview study of three of the largest selling women's magazines. She found that women's magazines convey a 'cult of femininity'. They instruct women in values and attitudes about being a woman. They tell women what to do and how to think about themselves, about their men, colleagues, children, what to wear how to act, and what to buy to be a femme fatale.
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Montag realizes that without being fully aware of it, that in two minutes he was essentially destroying something that took someone an entire lifetime to create. Censorship is a significant theme in Fahrenheit 451. Bradbury, through Beatty explains the origins of censorship. Bradbury suggests that there were two different factors that could contribute to book burning and censorship. The first factor is the ever increasing popularity of entertainment and mass media. Bradbury believed that the existence of technology gradually would make books obsolete.
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In the case of films censorship is widely used as a marketing ploy. The largest market for cinemas is the 14-17 age group. Therefore by editing a possible 18 rated film down to a 15 it stands better chance of being big at the box office, thus making it more money. This is made more probable by the fact that in Britain cuts are agreed between the British Board of Film Classification and the distributor-not the writer or director! I understand that is not suitable for an 11 yr old to watch a film with a large sexual content but instead of cutting these scenes out to allow that age group to see it, it should be left to the appropriate age to view.
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It was coined in the 1920s with the advent of nationwide radio networks and of mass-circulation newspapers and magazines. The mass-media audience has been viewed by some commentators as forming a mass society with special characteristics, notably atomization or lack of social connections, which render it especially susceptible to the influence of modern mass-media techniques such as advertising and propaganda. - 4. What are the different types of mass media? Electronic media and print media include: * Broadcasting, in the narrow sense, for radio and television.
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'One Foot in the Grave', is another British comedy that uses many stereotypes such as old people. Showing the elderly, for example as nosy and grumpy. To demonstrate how British television comedies use stereotypes of people and places to create amusement this essay will analyse 'Little Britain' and 'Shameless'. It will focus on specific characters and situations to establish how stereotypes are used to create comedy. 'Little Britain' is a hilarious comedy based around and about Britain. The programme was originally on BBC Radio Four, but as it became successful it was transferred to BBC Three as a comedy sketch show, in October 2003.
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The first step is that the mass audience receives the message. The second step is that each individual shares their interpretation of the message with others and alter their interpretations to coincide with others in a social setting. This is why it is called the two-step flow theory. Katz and Lazarsfeld who developed this theory stated that there is not a direct impact on the audience but the influence of friends and family, or 'opinion leaders' plays a key part in the impact that the media does have. This means that if the message is not shared in a social setting, then there may be no impact at all, and the message is forgotten about.
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It is also contended that modern media portrayal no longer represses the face of the new man, while publically acknowledging the patriarchal man as an aspiration. Making particular reference to the misogynistic elements of Hip Hop music and contemporary films to articulate a growing mysogionistic tendancy, but also highlighting the indistint macro nature of ideals within post modernity I wish to show that while elemets of what Rutherford states are still true. The definitions surrounding masculinity are not so clear cut.
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accounts and viewing it on TV they are accustomed to the view that males are aggressive characters whom women live in fear of. This approach of 'De-sensitisation' was adopted by Hilda Himmerlweit (168) as she suggested that prolonged exposure to programmes portraying violence may have a 'drip-drip' effect such that individuals are socialised in accepting this ideology. According to Tuchman (1978) women's issues are also marginalised as newspapers contain "women's pages" and he uses the concept 'Symbolic annihilation' to describe the way women in the media are absent, condemned or trivialised.
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Put simply, the words have very specific ideological assumptions of what is 'natural behaviour' for each sex. The portrayal of men and women in traditional roles is very prominent and also very contested in advertising. Characters, both male and female are constantly placed in roles, socially constructed to 'match' their gender. In other words, society has constructed (made) a set of 'truths' about what is the 'right' way for a man or a woman to behave. The media, of course, have had a hand in this construction, because of representation, which is an integral part of the encoding of any media text.
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During the course of looking at education, and ethnicity issues I became interested in how ethnic groups were portrayed in the media
However, there is an anticipated response, known as the preferred reading. Those who lack experience in cultural diversity are more likely to accept what is shown and therefore make generalisations from what they see to what they think. Therefore we make generalisations or stereotypical views of different members of society. This is my second concept. A stereotype is a conventional image of a person or group. Stereotypes generally conform to a pattern of dress or behaviour. A BBC news article entitled 'How entertainment changed: the media and multicultural Britain' addressing how the media has changed over time and gives statistics from a recent survey to the public, to their (ethnic minorities)
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It can be examined how different people receive media messages in different ways and why this is, via a method called 'reception analyses. This theory involves 3 different responses to media which Morley (1980) identifies as: Dominant (go along with), Oppositional (don't agree with views) or Negotiated (reinterpret views to fit their own opinions). An example of this effect is for instance a fight between 6 16-18 year old males outside a local pub. A dominant reaction to this would be that all youths are yobs and dangerous and an opposition reaction would be that it is always young people who get the blame for everything.
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They tend to take the role of helper or object, passive rather than active. Men are still represented as TV drama characters upto 3 times more frequently than women do and tend to be the predominant focus of news stories. These representations tend to be stereotypical in conforming to societal expectations and so the characters that do not fit this mould are seen as dangerous and deviant. The cultural effects model would suggest that this inundation of media messages about women is very limited and that it is hard to retain a critical viewpoint.
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This is in evidence when looking at the various press reports prior to the 1997 government elections. Newspapers such as the Sun claimed to support certain political parties, which coincided with the newspaper owner. After the elections the newspapers claimed to be an intergral part in the labour government coming into power. The question that arises is, does this also apply when reviewing the possible over representation of youth in the media? And do the media have the same sort of influence when looking at the public attitudes towards modern youth?
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The second peace of Paris was a humiliation yet Louis XVIII agreed to it; therefore the allies were right that it would be difficult for him to re-establish himself. The Ultras and the White Terror were key issues that showed that Louis XVIII found it difficult in stabilising France. It had not been possible for a general election to occur in the Chamber of Deputies before the Hundred Days, but it took place in August 1815. Louis XVIII had been persuaded to increase the number of seats from 258 to 402 and to lower the age of eligibility for membership from 40 to 25.
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