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AS and A Level: Media
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By continuing to stereotype these groups of people they are wrongly influencing society's views of them. The reasons why stereotypes exist are usually because when people make up characters (for TV scripts, film scripts, etc) it's easier to use the image of a woman that someone is familiar with, like a mother or beautiful girlfriend. However by stereotyping these women to suit the image the writers have in their heads they are therefore demeaning them. Would you feel happy if others perceived your mother or girlfriend as brainless?
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To a great extent one can admit to this point, man is rational, and with use of his reason can be mature enough to hear and see explicit viewings such as pornography. In contrast to this, a liberal thinker will again say that even if a person does not wish to view the use of vulgar words on the television or radio, then the person has the choice to change the channel. This brings us to a core stance that liberals take, and that is of choice.
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Adult violent offenders tend to have shown certain personality features as children, "one being they tended to have viewed violence on television." The amount of violence on television continues to grow. "A typical child watched on television one thousand murders and twenty five thousand acts of violence before finishing elementary school." When displayed this often, how can people not become desensitised to criminal acts? "By allowing this type of material to be openly exposed to the public we are endangering safety and society's values."
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The Frankfurt School theorised the possible effects of modern media, especially in response to German fascisms use of radio and film for propaganda purposes. The main strength of the effects model is that it was the first approach to try and analyse media effects systematically. It could also be argued that one of its strengths is that it attempted to isolate the effects of the media from other influences. The effects model started in the 1940's and is now considered very simplistic.
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To what extent do media representations of refugees and asylum seekers limit their integration within society?
This essay aims to explore this concern, examining the extent to which the media are responsible for limiting the integration of refugees and asylum seekers within society. The essay will firstly examine the official definitions of the terms 'refugee' and 'asylum seeker', it will then explore the role of the media in influencing thoughts and behaviour, before examining, in terms of their official definitions, whether the media represent refugees and asylum seekers favourably or unfavourably. This examination will draw upon examples of positive and negative reporting in the press.
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These kinds of stereotypes are very simple and may go unnoticed by today's audiences but when examined closer they are more complex for example the common stereotype of the dumb blonde. The other term that I will be referring to throughout this essay in correlation to stereotypes is representation. This media term can refer to the way in which some media texts, re-present certain events, stories. They are always constructed and not always true, no matter how realistic or plausible the media seems such as the news.
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Research by Critcher et al (1977) and Troyna (1981) had similar conclusions to Hartmann and Husband's in that the media created a negative perception of black people. For example, the media portrayed the ethnic minorities especially black people as lazy, violent, murderous and welfare cheaters. Troyna adds that the only difference he noticed was that in the 1960's the focus was on immigration problems and in the 1970's it was on the problems caused by the presence of these immigrants.
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. Hypothesis The question I have been posed asks: "Does the mass media influence youth culture?" Through a series of questionnaires, surveys, and experiments, I hope to be able to provide as accurate an answer as possible to this question. However, before I even begin to obtain any evidence I can hazard a guess as to what the outcome of my investigation will be. Having briefly explored in my introduction the power the media already wielded some sixty years ago, I think that it is inconceivable that any age group - be they young or old - are not at all influenced by the mass media today.
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To understand the history of media it's important to see how others have studied it. The problem with the study of media history is that "media history tends not to illuminate the links between media development and wider trends in society because it is often narrowly focused on the content or organisation of the media" (Curran, J. 2002). The reason for this is that it is preoccupied with "institutional development" (Curran, J. 2002). Media has a huge effect on society, by not looking at the media's impact, you can't understand how and what the media is.
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Any sociological explanation of the influence of the mass media needs to take into account the social situation of the audience. Explain and evaluate the social situation expressed in this situation
Another theory that analyses the extent to which the mass media affects us is the Two Step Flow model. People make their views of the world through their own experiences, family and friends and also the media. Some people in the audience are called opinion leaders who are affected by the media and pass that on through the comments they make. These two theories are arguable in favour as they both suite the social situation of both audiences. But the one theory that favours more is the two step flow model as the mass media provides information and values which then flow to the 'opinion leaders' who shape the views then to the audience that act upon the information in a variety of ways.
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The top five applicant countries were Somalia, Zimbabwe, China, India and Pakistan. Also in 2002 the UK received most applications of asylum than any of the other western countries with 24%. It is these statistics and media coverage around the arrival of asylum seekers that heighten grwoing tensions and hostility towards asylum seekers. Media coverage of asylum seekers can be blamed for fuelling hostility towards the seekers therefore the media coverage of the new reforms and how they are presented to the general public will be analysed. David Blunkett's new measures to toughen up the asylum system were unveiled earlier this week.
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to audience demands v selective/uniform/decided from above Audience - Fragmented/selective/reactive & active v dependent/passive/mass/organized on a large scale/reactive Effects - numerous, inconsistent/unpredictability/often no effect v strong and confirmative of EST social order and status quo. What do the Pluralists say about the media generally? Pluralists argue that the public have the power to resist persuasion by the media; they have the ability to use the media rather than be used by them. The media don't just manipulate people's actions. Media are not all powerful Pluralists tend to support the idea that the media respond more to public demand than vice versa.
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The cheese mite movie contains insects eating some cheese, this movie was banned, movies like these were banned by the British Cheese Foundation because the content of the films could cause a decrease in the sale of cheese, and this can go onto causing other problem factors e.g. loss of jobs. To hide the facts of movies like these being banned the tents were shut down for safety reasons these were two reasons. One of the reasons could have been they didn't want the working class to see these films because of a revolt, or because the films were made out of nitrates which are highly flammable.
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Marxists on the other hand would argue that the media constructs desires and creates social reality. In other words it is a sculptor of a worldview and distorts social reality which is based on exploitation of a powerless majority, thus it is an ideological tool of the powerful bourgeoisie and reflects their interests. Over eighty percent of the media is owned by Trans National Corporations. But does ownership have any effect on the media coordinators? According to pluralists the answer is simply no.
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it can be argued that the media decides the stories and the public responds by reviewing the media therefore they are supporting the media financially]and it can be argued that the media can be used to satisfy human needs such as entertainment (the Sun), information (BBC news) etc. With that in mind it could be argued that the media does not use the interests of the capitalists [right wing] as other theories such as Marxists would argue. With pluralists believing in a democracy they believe that anyone can change what they want and if linked to the media, the public can air their views whenever they want to.
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The system of beliefs protected by works like the Index had to have been systems of thought in which certain texts possessed immense value and importance. Now, ideas, thoughts and information are made readily available to the public, and it gives people with conflicting and controversial thoughts a much more effective medium to spread their thoughts. This explosion in mediums of information is what has lead to such a controversy over what people can and cannot view and absorb. Why and how has censorship existed for so long and how has it changed over time?
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This is a basic aim of advertisers in the hope of creating more sales. They hope that their image and their message will, through repetition, become imprinted in women's minds, so that people will be compelled to buy a certain product through of process of subconscious recognition and association. Advertisers can achieve this by the skilful use Stereotypes. I have already explored the stereotype of the young beautiful businesswoman with the perfect family, but there are hundreds more. A stereotype is a ready-made image of a person or relationship that is instantly recognisable.
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Young adults, aged 16-20, are becoming Increasingly desensitized to violence in films - investigate.
My second context is the research conducted by Tim Newburn and Ann Hagell on media consumption and deviance. They interviewed 78 frequent young offenders (aged 12-18) and sought comparable information from a representative sample of 538 school children by means of questionnaires. There main findings where: ? Films which where at the time the focus of a moral panic had been watched by very few in either group ? Offenders lives are full of chaos and deprivation and the media are of less significance for them than their non offending peers ?
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"The British media's coverage of asylum seekers and refugees is characterised by stereotyping, exaggeration and inaccurate language" - Discuss.
The headline also uses the word "handout", which hints that they are not working for their money and just getting it given to them. They could have easily replaced this term with "benefits" instead of the word "handout" but deliberately wrote this to represent them as unfair people who are out to get whatever they can. The writer also uses "average" to stress that asylum could be earning more than this significant figure. It then gives the higher possibility over the average to make asylum seem money grabbing.
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"The British media's coverage of asylum seekers and refugees is characterised by stereotyping, exaggeration and inaccurate language." Discuss this statement, with reference to at least two newspaper articles.
For instance, it seemed that the bold "�16,000 in tax free handouts" title makes the readers assume that it was just for a single man's benefit. By assuming that it was just one man receiving the money, the readers get the impression it's a complete outrage as the article implies its such a huge amount of money. This is the general image portrayed in the British Media Coverage. Throughout the Daily Mail article, "�16,000 - That's what the average asylum seeker family gets a year in handouts (and it's all tax free!)"
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That the good people of Scotland should swallow such garbage wholesale is an indictment on the country which is famed for its welcome to visitors as well as the ambassadorship of the Tartan Army. On entering the UK, asylum seekers are eligible for support from the Government equivalent to 70% of the rate of Income Support, around �36 - only �10 of which is in cash, the rest in humiliating and stigmatising vouchers. That is 70% of what most in receipt of 100% income support would argue is not enough to live on.
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or because they have too many rainbows. Rainbows are considered a sign of 'New Age' religiosity. Little Red Riding Hood was the 24th most banned book in the early 90's mostly because she had a bottle of wine in her basket. Many organizations demanded a non-alcohol Little Red. They were successful sometimes in their efforts, by the way." Did you ever hear anyone say, 'That work had better be banned because I might read it and it might be very damaging to me'?"
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Pick a subculture(Youth, Sexuality, Age). How are these groups represented in the media?Why is this the case?
A tool in which the media can construct our ideologies is through the use of stereotypes. Stereotypes are used widely in society, they give a holistic, often negative representation of a social group (A.Briggs 2001 ) . If we hold a stereotype against a certain group our behaviour towards them may be a predicted and so misleading of their actual personae. Stereotypes are a ideological concept they use codes such as personality traits, mental and sexual characteristics which have a social significance for a particular group in society (T. O'Sullivan 1997). Stereotypes of isolated groups, including sexuality, can be inaccurate.
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Why do 'outsider groups' seek to influence or manage media coverage? How important is media coverage to such groups?
They tend to aim to get as many eligible members of that section as possible (http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/pressure_groups.htm, August 2002). And Grant went on to further state that cause groups 'represented some belief or principle, seeking to act in the interest of that cause.' These groups are often classified outside the mainstream, and tend to be based on membership without having the attachment of exclusivity to its name. Cause groups are somewhat different to sectional groups, as since they are promoting a cause, which could potentially, be supported by anybody. Usually membership for this reason is not restricted, and the more members it has, generally the more stronger the cause is.
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Examine the contribution of sociologists to understanding the ways in which the media portray disability and age.
reflects social reality. The biggest disability is bad practice attitudes and environment and not the physical conditions." This statement is suggesting that it is not the disabled peoples physical attributes that are the problem but rather the attitudes that are created towards them. People are brainwashed by the images that the media create and without experience the media is the only form of information that they are provided with regarding disability. Cumberbatch and Negrine also found that how people responded to the disabled depended on how much experience they had with them. Those who had more experience and understanding of the disabled were more likely to reject stereotypical representations presented to them.
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