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Abraham Maslow - Motivational Theory

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Introduction

3.21.2.2 - Abraham Maslow - Motivational Theory Motivational theory has its roots in psychology as do most of the major instructional theories. The major thinker on motivation is the American Abraham Maslow, who devised a six-level hierarchy of motives that he claimed determined human behaviour. These motives or needs are ranked by Maslow as follows: 1) physiological, 2) security and safety, 3) love and feelings of belonging, 4) competence, prestige and esteem, 5) self-fulfilment, and 6) curiosity and the need to understand. Psychologists have also debated whether or not humans are motivated to reduce stimulation or to optimise it. Maslow believes that all motivation is achieved from unsatisfied needs, and that the ranking of these needs need to be ranked as I have stated above in order to achieve. Basically Maslow is trying to say that employees need to be paid adequately so they can provide for their basic physiological needs, and safety needs like food, housing, clothing etc. they also need social contact with fellow employees, working within teams helps to encourage social contact and also esteem can be provided where an organisation offers prospects of promotion. ...read more.

Middle

They would really like to be given more responsibilities and are very hard working. They are prepared to except any changes which might occur within the organisation. It is basically the opposite of theory X. If a manager was to adapt theory X they would have to make sure that they supervised their employers so that they did not slack, phone in sick constantly and turned up on time. There will need to be a lot of specific rules and regulations enforced and consequences if these are not followed. Inspections will need to be carried out to make sure that quality of the products is remained at a high level. There will be no attempt made by a manager who uses the theory X management style to ask their employees about their opinions on the running of the organisation. A theory Y manager can be very positive about his or hers employees. They can leave them to get on with their own thing which saves a lot of time. Quality assessments will not be needed as often because the quality will be generally higher and this will save a lot of money and time. ...read more.

Conclusion

These are: * Expectancy theory - stating that employees will only be motivated to work harder if they believe there is a big enough reward at the end of it. * Equity theory - people are better motivated when they feel they are fairly treated. * Goal theory - employees are set specific goals and then they are motivated more effectively if the goals are achieved and there is a chance of money or promotion * Reactance theory - employees are motivated by what they think they have achieved. So if the pay is tied to performance it will motivate them to work harder for a bigger reward. One other things that I think is very important to make sure that occurs between employers and their staff is trust. If an employee trusts their employer they are much more likely to perform better because their relationship is strong and they trust each others judgements. Say for example, in appraisals being bale to trust each other will mean that realistic targets can be set because they trust the each others judgements. Also if employers trust their employees it will mean more responsibility will be given to them, which will motivate them even more so, so again enhancing their performance. ...read more.

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