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Compare and contrast the various approaches to the roles of management.

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Introduction

Compare and contrast the various approaches to the roles of management. There are many theories which discuss management and in each case they are looking for the most effective way of management apart from contemporary views. Contemporary views are the only set of ideas that take into account the changing set of circumstances for each organisation on a daily occurrence. Every other theory assumes that certain variables stay the same and this can be seen as a drawback as new strategies and ways of thinking are needed as the micro and macro environment change, for example a change in legislation will curb the way in which a company will produce a product or a change in the size of the organisation will induce more difficulty into communications within the organisation. During this essay I will be exploring the various similarities and differences in the way in which the most influential theorists think and the way in which theories can be placed in certain categories. There are 3 main areas in which management theory can be placed into, Classical, Human relations and Contemporary perspectives. Under the heading of Classical come further headings of Scientific, Bureaucracy and Management science. The Classical theorists are all looking for the one best way to manage which of course is a ludicrous idea as there is no one organisation which is even remotely similar to the next. ...read more.

Middle

These 'cogs' should be steered in a systematic way to boost efficiency and had no ability to innovate, think or improvise. If every cog had been assigned a specific, repetitive task, everything was supposed to go well. Everything was organised through a pyramid of control designed in a purely bureaucratic fashion. If we see the 3 areas of management under the heading "Classical" as a procession it is plan to see that Scientific theory is operations orientated, Management science theory is management orientated and Organisational structures is somewhere in between. So if we take Management science as an "opposite end to the spectrum" theory to Scientific theories we see that the difference is that management science has an emphasis on the efficiency and performance of a manager instead of an emphasis on control of operations. A key theorist to management science is Henri Fayol. He saw that a mangers job had basic factors that were, planning, organizing, commanding coordinating activities, controlling performance. Fayol also said that there are 14 principles to management, I will select the main few, specialization of labour encouraging continuous improvement in skills and the development of improvements in methods, Unity of command, each employee has one and only one boss, Scalar Chain (line of authority), formal chain of command running from top to bottom of the organization, Unity of direction, a single mind generates a single plan and all play their part in that plan. ...read more.

Conclusion

This theory is a very "open-ended" theory and is a step further to having a theory which is of more practical use to an organisation. It is very important to have a defined and structured hierarchy in which employees have direction and a sense of purpose. After years of research by all the theorists it has become a common idea that there is no one best theory but a collection of all the ideas set out by all the theorists would be best. All contingency theories are basically saying that managers need to assess each individual organisation and apply a management theory which would be most affective given the type of employees, type of tasks and the structure of the organisation. If assessed correctly there should be no reason why an organisation would have un-happy employees and low productivity levels. To conclude, there are certain ideas we can take for certain, the classical bureaucratic nature of the "boss" is no longer a good way to motivate employees. An emphasis needs to be placed on the "freedom" of employees, as they will be more dedicated to their work if they are encouraged to make decisions of their own. Management has become a lot more complex. The role of the manager has had to become far more multifaceted as more demands are given to them. Managers will have to be seen as colleagues and not the "boss" if effective motivation of the workforce and individuals is to be carried out. ...read more.

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