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Frederick Hertzberg's Two Factor Theory (1923-2000) Bibliography of Frederick Hertzberg Frederick Hertzberg was born on 18th April 1923 in Lynn , Massachusetts . He did his undergraduate work at CCNY (City College of New York). Then, he attended to Un...

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Frederick Hertzberg's Two Factor Theory (1923-2000) Bibliography of Frederick Hertzberg Frederick Hertzberg was born on 18th April 1923 in Lynn, Massachusetts. He did his undergraduate work at CCNY (City College of New York). Then, he attended to University of Pittsburg where, he obtained a graduate degree. Hertzberg moved to Utah to work at Case Western Reserve University. He was a Professor of Management in that institution. It was here, where Hertzberg established the Department of Industrial Mental Health. As a consultant, he served the American Institute of Research, International Business Machines, American Telephone and Telegraph, General Motors and British Petroleum (BT). In 1964, Hertzberg was the recipient of a Fulbright Fellowship in Finland. ...read more.


3. Hertzberg on Motivation for the 80's: Piecing Together Generations of Values (Oct. 1, 1979) 4. Productivity Begins with the Individual (Nov. 30, 1981) 5. Worker's Needs (Sept. 1, 1987) The Two Factor Theory In 1960's, Frederick Hertzberg interviewed two hundred accountants and engineers. He asked them what they liked and disliked about their jobs and the reason why. Hertzberg set the results into two categories and called them "motivation factors" and "hygiene factors". This became known as 'two factor theory'. Motivation Factors Motivation factors develop positive job satisfaction and psychological growth. It can encourage employees to achieve above-average performance and effect. Motivation factors include:- * Status * Opportunity of advancement (e.g. promotion) * Gaining recognition * Responsibility * Meaningful and interesting work * Challenging/stimulating work * Personal achievement and personal growth in a job Hygiene factors Hygiene factors create job dissatisfaction and de-motivation. ...read more.


Low motivation as a result of low hygiene- unmotivated employees with a lot of complaints Hertzberg felt that management should concentrate on reorganising work conditions so, that employees can be motivated. He believes that there are three ways to do this:- 1. Job Enlargement 2. Job Rotation 3. Job Enrichment I have explained these job designs fully, on page 2 and 3. Hertzberg suggested that job enrichment is a better way, to encourage employees to work better. Job enrichment takes place when the job holds:- * A completed unit of work, rather than leftovers * Instant feedback about the quality of the work * Direct communication (not via a supervisor) The work of Hertzberg led many successful companies such as, Volvo and Toyota, to rearrange their working conditions to provide employees with finished unit of work. ?? ?? ?? ?? Theory of Motivation - 19 - ...read more.

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