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Human motivation

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Introduction Most of us get up in the morning, go to school, university or work, and behave in ways that are predictably our own. We respond to our environment and the people in it with little thought about why we work hard, enjoy certain classes or find some recreational activities so much fun. Yet all these types of behaviour are motivated by something. Motivation refers to the forces either within or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action. Employee motivation affects productivity, and part of a manager's job is to channel motivation towards the accomplishment of organizational goals. A simple model of human motivation is shown as above. People have basic needs - such as need for food, achievement or monetary gain - which translate into an internal tension that motivates specific behaviour with which to fulfill the need. To the extent that the behaviour is successful, the person is rewarded in the sense that the need is satisfied. The reward also inform the person that the behaviour was appropriate and can be used again in the future. Authorities distinguish between two types of reward: "Intrinsic rewards derive form the process of performing a particular function. ...read more.


Process Theories " pp545 Rather than examine innate traits, process theories aim to link several variables that make up motivation. They tend to be more complex than content theories because of the multiple perspectives used. Job design approach is based on the notion. Job design Job design is the identification and arrangement of tasks which together form a job. It is clear that boring jobs carried out under harsh conditions are demotivating. At the other extreme, job that have too much variety, uncertainty and challenge can also demotivate if they make inequitable demands on the people who are expected to do them. Good job design seeks the happy medium. When job are designed with those things in mind, employees are motivated to reach their full productive capability. Let's take a closer look at how managers can design motivating jobs.pp490 Job Characteristic Model Hackman and Oldham searched for general factors within job tasks that would lead to high motivation. Their model links core job characteristics through critical psychological states to results, as shown in the following picture. The job characteristics model (JCM) does offer such a framework. It identifies five primary job characteristics, their interrelationships, and their impact on employee productivity, motivation and satisfaction. ...read more.


Gain-sharing plan use regular cash bonuses linked to performance. Other approaches include employee stock ownership plans(ESOP). Conclusion In review of paragraph, a number of important ideas about motivation of people in organizations. Motivation combines with competence to deliver work performance. Many believe that people devote effort for a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards and satisfaction. Yet the links are complex with many theories explaining the patterns. Content theories look to the satisfaction of needs as the staring point. People work better if the work is satisfying. Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Alderfer's ERG theory all suggest that people are motivate to meet a range of needs. Process Theories examine the way people go about selecting rewards with which to meet needs. The application of motivation ideas is illustrated in job design and other motivational programs. Managers can change the structure of work to meet employee's high-level needs. In all of these, the person's perception is central. How they are meaning to the results of their work is the key to explaining their motivation. Reinforcement Theory takes this a little further, adding in the notion of learning. 1 John Naylor. "Leadership and Motivation" in Management. Financial Time Pitman Publishing. Pp539 2Samuel C. Certo. "Motivation" in Modern Management. Prentice Hall, Eight Edition. Pp359 ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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