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Important demographics of Brazil.

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Introduction

Brazil Brazil is fifth largest country in the world, in terms of both population and land area. It is the largest country in South America, occupying 48% of the continent. Important demographics - Land Area = 8,511,996 km2 Population = 174,468,575 Population Density = 19.4 persons/km2 Birth Rate = 20 per 1000 Death Rate = 9 per 1000 Infant Mortality = 37 per 1000 Life Expectancy = 63.2 years Language = Portuguese Religion = Catholic Pop. per doctor = 1080 In 1872, Brazil's population was 9.9 million, which almost doubled to 17.4 by 1900. At this time, the birth rate was 46 per 1000, and the death rate was 30 per 1000, however the birth rate continued at a high level until 1960, yet the death rate declined steadily, resulting in an increasing rate of population growth. The total population reached 50 million in the late 1940s and 100 million in the early 1970s, so since 1940 the population has quadrupled. Today, the birth rate is more than double the death rate, so Brazil has a rapidly increasing population. The infant mortality rate has decreased to 37 per 1000 from 116 in 1960 proving that healthcare has improved. In recent decades the rate of population growth has slowed because of a rapidly falling fertility rate; which today is estimated at 2.09 children per woman, compared to 6 in the 1960s; so education is improving. ...read more.

Middle

Brazil is 94th. Economic Problems During the period of colonisation by Portugal, an economic structure was created so Brazil was specialised in export production of raw materials to its 'mother country.' Brazil did not develop internal markets, so when colonisation ended it was dependant on exports, but it could not get high prices for these raw materials as other countries produced the same raw materials, and they could easily be substituted. Brazil remains dependant on outside sources of capital and technology, and external markets for its commodities, especially oil. This is the dependency theory of the South Americans. Over the years, Brazil has experienced several economic crises including the debt crisis of the 1980s (where a rise in interest rates made it difficult for LEDCs like Brazil to pay their debts and causing a loss of credit for future loans; after borrowing large quantities of capital from multilateral development banks to finance rapid industrialisation); and the currency crisis of the 1990s (where Brazil's currency collapsed when overseas investors lost confidence in Brazil's economy and began pulling their money out); creating a cycle of boom and bust rather than sustained growth. Although Brazil has seen a rapid growth in production and exports, but international debt and public spending have also increased. This has led to rapid inflation, so wages had to increase and savings decreased. ...read more.

Conclusion

This can be easily grown, is a renewable source and causes less pollution. Income distribution has never been high on the list of priorities for Brazil; as economic growth, price stability and control of debt are their main goals. However huge improvements are being made to education and training as this seems to be the key to solving this, and helping to eradicate absolute poverty. 40% of Brazil's working population are thought to be involved in the black economy, which is reckoned to be worth $220 billion. Reducing this will increase employment levels and produce a higher output. 2 million tourists visited Brazil in 1994 and spent a total of $1.8 billion. This industry is relatively undeveloped so considerable scope for expansion in the future as it represents 7.8% of GDP, and employs directly and indirectly, about 6 million people. The National Economic and Social Development Bank has launched a $3 billion plan to boost the northeast region to attract tourism. Embrateur, the organisation responsible for tourist policy has 3 main objectives for Brazil - * Improvement in basic infrastructure in the regions designated for tourism * The need to improve the quality of service to become competitive in the international market * The need to invest in marketing and promotion to change Brazil's image. It aims to double the number of foreign visitors, particularly those from Europe, in order to increase employment and bring money into the country, although there are the disadvantages of it 'leaking out.' Rebecca Jones 1 ...read more.

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