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Motivation Techniques

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PROJECT OPTION E: Motivation Techniques Amy Chan Johanna Ferreira Laura Giuliano Lejla Radoncic Miyer Levy Introduction Motivation is defined as the desire within a person causing that person to act.1 It provokes a person to behave in a way that ensures the accomplishment of some goal. Since productivity is a result of the behavior of organization members, motivating them is key to reaching organizational goals. According to a 1998 survey conducted by Sibson & Company, 55% of employees plan to quit or think of quitting.2 There are many different factors that motivate and retain employees. It is important to understand why some are more effective than others. Though it is not easy, managers and human resource professionals must attempt to recognize what motivates employees in order to become successful. Theories of Motivation: Maslow and Herzberg There are multiple theories that attempt to explain the essence of what motivates people. The most commonly noted theories were developed by Abraham Maslow and Frederick Herzberg. Their ideas have been studied and critiqued for decades. In 1943, after extensive research, Abraham Maslow developed his Hierarchy of Needs motivation theory. He tried to explain the needs that must be fulfilled before a person can become motivated at a higher level. The basis of Maslow's theory is that human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs, and that certain lower needs need to be met before higher needs can be satisfied.3 Maslow classified the levels of need in five ascending categories. The most basic needs are the physiological needs, which consist of water, food, shelter, and clothing. These fundamental necessities are essential to any human being to feel comfortable and in a state of equilibrium. The next level is safety and security needs, such as being in a safe environment and having job security. This need alleviates the threat of physical and emotional harm.4 The third level is the need for love and belonging. ...read more.


Evaluation of training can be accomplished at four levels: reaction, whereby trainees are interviewed or complete questionnaires; learning through testing; behavior by observing job performance; and results by measuring the effect of training on the achievement of the organization's objectives. Methods of training evaluation may include benchmarking, cost-benefit analyses, or return on investments. Evaluation designs may be employed in the internal evaluation of training programs. These include post-measure, which occurs after the training and determines if the trainees can perform at the expected level, and pre/post-measure, which involves testing prior to training, as well as after to compare the effectiveness of the program. A control group is sometimes used, in which certain individuals are not trained and the value of the training process used may be appraised.16 Too often, organizations fail to take into consideration employee relations, recognition, communication, and involvement issues that are most important to people. Training and learning opportunities can reinforce such issues and emphasize necessary work priorities that will improve both the employees' and organization's performance. Feedback Improvement in work performance is a fundamental objective employers have for their workforce. Communicating to employees is an integral part that aids in this progress. Feedback is the amount of information received about how well or how poorly one has performed. The main benefit of it is that it helps employees to understand the effectiveness of their performance and contributes to their overall knowledge about the work. There are two types of feedback; positive and negative. Positive feedback establishes one's social identity. It reinforces an individual's perception of his or her competencies, denotes peer acceptance and belongingness, and establishes feelings of worth and status. Negative feedback is interpreted as invalidating elements of the individual's self concept. The extent to which feedback is positive rather than negative has a great impact on satisfaction. Based on the survey and personal experience, one of the most effective ways to encourage a person is to provide frequent, positive feedback during assigned tasks or while he/she strives toward goals. ...read more.


The number of companies starting EAP programs has increased substantially. Many corporations have recognized how daily stress can negatively affect employee attendance and coordination, morale, and overall job performance. Today, many companies provide EAP services for their employees; several of which are at no cost to the employees. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the average cost per year is twenty eight dollars for in house programs and about twenty two dollars for the outside programs for employers. These costs favor the cost of recruitment and training replacements. The cost of the program is favorable to the company and the employees because they both benefit from it. The company encourages a stress free environment as well as motivation to the employees. Not only do employees benefit from this, but family members also can use these services at no cost. Unfortunately, according to Dean R. Spitzer, seventy percent of employees are less motivated today that then they used to be, eighty percent of employees could perform significantly better if they wanted to, and fifty percent of employees only put enough effort into their work to keep their job.24 Motivation does not only come from salary, benefits, vacation pay, and 401k retirement plan. The key to motivation is the morale of the employees, which employee assistance programs aim to boost. Conclusion In order to motivate an employee, managers must understand that what can motivate one employee might not motivate another. Motivating employees can be one of the most difficult tasks a manager must face, but it is necessary for the success of the business. The key factor is to figure out what stimulates each employee to keep them motivated and happy. Employees that are motivated exert more effort and are more productive in the workplace. Therefore, managers should make every effort possible to keep their employees motivated and happy in order for their workforce to perform their best and to stay in the company. ...read more.

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