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Staffing and Training.

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STAFFING AND TRAINING As multinational firms globalise they must learn to co-ordinate efforts among an increasingly culturally diverse workforce and environment. Nowadays people tend to be very defensive of their cultural identity and caution by others has to be taken so that insult is not caused. Through the years success of Japanese organisation's global strategies has encouraged American firms. Although many point out the advantages, cultural diversity may leads to conflict, misunderstanding and lack of cohesion. (Tung, [1993]) states that cross cultural training process, helps in the development of building relations between individuals or groups, especially individuals/groups with diverse cultural backgrounds. (Welch [1998]) defines cultural training as "any form of guided experience helping people to live and work more contentedly in another culture". Such training encourages understanding about differences and acceptance of the multicultural work environment and helps create and retain effective work teams and expertise in dealing with multicultural management (Hartenian, [2000]) describes the multi-cultural workforce as a workforce that excludes no one, from top-level management to low-level employee's. He sees the multi-cultural workforce has one of the main opportunities for an organisation. Although multi-cultural workforces are beneficial to organisations in relation to performance and profitability, they can be very hard to manage. According to (Hill, [92]) the key to managing multi-cultural workforces is the realisation that majority and minority cultures do not always share experiences. To solve this managers can adapt different strategies such as: developing programmes that promote awareness of different cultures, recognise common links among different ethnic groups and express concerns and confusions. (Hill [1992]) believes that if organisations use these strategies, economic benefits will be reaped. This may be easier said than done, (Harisis & Kleiner, [1993]) ...read more.


Respondents in this study perceived more success in improving interpersonal skills than dealing with culturally diverse people because those skills are probably more easily observable and acquirable. A more rigorous research design is recommended before definitive conclusions about the efficiency of the training can be reached (Black and Mendenhall, 1990). Without identifying a baseline of knowledge and skills before starting the program, it becomes difficult to measure training effectiveness. Researchers can solve this problem by utilizing a pretest-posttest design with a control group, identifying two separate groups during pretest. One group would be tested before and after receiving the training. The other group would simply be tested twice - once before and once after the program - but they would not receive the training. By measuring both groups, training managers could fully assess the impact of the training program. Furthermore, the measurement of the training effectiveness needs to incorporate the trainee's estimation about the program in addition to perceptions from directors of human resources. Alliger and Janak (1989) advocated that training needs to integrate two evaluation criteria: 1 Internal. For assessing how trainees feel about the training experience. 2 External. For estimating the changes in job behavior and organizational effectiveness (Milkovich and Boudreau, 1991). . In responding to the multicultural work environments and international scope of restaurant operations, the hospitality industry should provide proper training for line employees who require customer interactions during their routine jobs in addition to managers who deal with employee promotion and corporate culture. TRAINING Perlmutter identified three managerial attitudes toward international operations Managers with an ethnocentric attitude are home-country oriented. Home-country personnel, ideas, and practices are viewed as inherently superior to those from abroad and are used for evaluation purposes. ...read more.


Market entry strategies have favoured equity JVs, which several ASEAN countries prefer in order to protect their own interests and ensure long-term growth (Lasserre, 1995; Mann 1996). The JV formation process: an analytical framework Lorange and Roos (1993) proposed a formation process model for JVs and strategic alliances which consisted of two areas of consideration; political and analytical and two phases of development; the initial and the intensive phase. This model has been modified and extended to create an analytical framework which derives from the Indonesian JV experience. The marketing and economic benefits from such a JV were apparent to Lucas at the time. Essentially the JV would provide abundant and highly skilled low-cost labour (with future joint product development a realistic possibility), made up of a loyal, dedicated and, importantly, reliable workforce with excellent proven machine tool skills and capabilities. Good rail and air transport links with markets in Europe, North America and Asia Pacific made it an attractive proposition along with a burgeoning Western market for low-cost high quality aerospace standard precision machined parts and components Westerners, particularly from Northern Europe and North America are generally viewed as particularists (Trompenaars, 1993). They rely heavily on rules and legal agreements to structure and provide governance to cooperative ventures. Trompenaars, F. (1993), Riding the Waves of Culture, Nicholas Brealey, London The most commonly utilized starting point for organizational development work on managing diversity is some type of employee education program. Human Resource Planning, June 2001 v24 i2 p10 Workforce Diversity Training: From Anti-Discrimination Compliance to Organizational Development. Marc Bendick; Mary Lou Egan; Suzanne M. Lofhjelm. "Diversity is not just race and gender. It has a lot to do with communication styles and work styles," Training, April 2000 v37 i4 p34 How Do You Spell Diversity? ALISON WELLNER. LEAD THIS IN TO TRAINING ...read more.

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