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The classical perspective of management

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Introduction

The classical perspective of management was first implemented in the late 1800s as a way to overcome the problems posed by the factory systems that had recently been implemented. These problems were organising chains of command, instructing employees what to do, as many of them did not speak English and also organising the workload to cope with increased workload. It is split into three different sections, Scientific Management, bureaucratic organizations and administrative principles. Scientific management is the most effective in terms of productivity. The idea was first introduced by Frederick Winslow Taylor; Taylor worked on the principle of following set procedure increased productivity. This technique was effective in producing results; this was combined with incentives for reaching the targets set, this also increased productivity to the desired level. The principle of rewarding employees with bonuses is a practise still used to this day, although within the modern workplace the rewards are mainly used within sales positions to encourage increased sales. The idea of having one set way to work efficiently is one that is also still used in today's workplace. ...read more.

Middle

All personnel are selected and promoted based on technical qualifications, which are assessed by examination or according to training and experience. 4. Administrative acts and decisions are recorded in writing. Recordkeeping provides organisational memory and continuity over time. 5. Management is separate from the ownership of the organisations. 6. Managers are subject to rules and procedure that will ensure reliable, predictable behaviour. Rules are impersonal and uniformly applied to all employees. Sources: Daft, Richard L, Management, 6th Edition,p41, p42, p43, p44 It was believed that invoking the above principles would lead to a more efficient and adaptable organisation. This approach to management was fairer to staff, it meant that staff were promoted due to ability rather than personal connections. In today's organisations this principle is still used, people are promoted based on their performance in the workplace. This also encourages staff to work harder as they have an incentive. Although from a managerial perspective the bureaucratic approach is seen to be effective, lower level staff find it frustrating. ...read more.

Conclusion

Originally there were 14 principles which Fayol felt could be applied in any organisational setting. Fayol also identified the five basic functions of management: Planning, organising, commanding, coordinating and controlling. The five functions are the basis of much of the approach to today's management theory. Administrative principles served as a contrast to the scientific approach and are still used today as they are useful for modern managers dealing with the many changes in today's global environment. This approach also introduced the ideas of empowerment, facilitating rather than controlling staff and allowing employees to act depending on the authority of the situation. Sources: Daft Richard L., Management, 6th Edition p43, p44, p45 The classical perspective as a whole was a very influential as an approach to management. It established the skills and knowledge required to raise productivity and to allow fair and equal treatment of employees. As I have pointed out many of the original principles are still very much apparent in today's workplace. The classical perspective is the foundations of all of today's management approaches and helped greatly to shape the organisations we know today. ...read more.

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