• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11

The Japanese Occupation - Concept of Great East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

Extracts from this document...


The Japanese Occupation - Concept of Great East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere Mehden - pp 43-46 Pluvier - pp 92-101, 269-281 Camb.Hist - pp 333-34 Bastin - pp 124-152 Osborne - pp 122-137 The rise of Japanese militarism Factors: 1. Beginning in the 1890s, the public education system indoctrinated students in ideas of nationalism, loyalty to Emperor and traditional ideas of self sacrifice and obedience. Therefore, ideas that were originally propagated to mobilise support for the Meiji government were easily diverted to form broad support for the militarism. 2. Japanese society still held remnants of feudal culture such as strong Confucian beliefs that stressed support for social order and lack of emphasis on individualist values. These values taught obedience not to a democratic government but to the Emperor. Therefore, the military government of the 1930s ruled with the Emperor as head of state meant that the Japanese were loyal to this government. Hence, when Japan's military government implemented programmes characteristic of totalitarianism, such as strong media control, a thought police and community organisations, the public held no protests. 3. Shintoism provided a religious justification for nationalism and support for the Emperor and the military government. Shintoism became an ideological weapon in the 1930s teaching Japanese that they were a superior country that had right to expand and that its government was divinely led by a descendent of the sun god. 4. The Machurian Incident of 1931 and the Marco Polo bridge explosion went unpunished and therefore the Japanese public rallied around the militarists. Hence, the militarists were able to push for expansion and a greater role in the government. 5. The London Treaty and Japan's rejection by the European powers at the Versailles Conference angered the militarists who felt the humiliation as Japan was denied equality with the great powers. The Japanese Plans for the concept of Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere 1. A decade of expansion had resulted in the creation of the 'Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere'. ...read more.


Cattle were requisitioned for transport purposes and for beef and leather while sesame was requisitioned to provide as a lubricant for engines. Such rakishness encouraged opportunities for corruption and extortionist practices either by the Japanese themselves or by the civil servants in charge of administering the scheme and the police who assisted in collecting the quotas that had to be delivered Enemy property was confiscated for the benefit of the Japanese not the local inhabitants and there was a rapid growth of "joint stock companies", a common device in China where local concerns were forced to accept Japanese partners. Local businessmen who had hoped that the expulsion of Westerners would secure economic control in their own hands were quickly disappointed . Army control over business increased which by the end of the war had developed to the point where Japanese companies were little more than army agents and company officials appeared in army uniforms. Japanese interests were the only considerations and they were not concerned for the public welfare. Economic Impact of Japanese occupation Wartime disruption of communications and the devastation of shipping. The invasion and the scorched-earth tactics of the retreating Allies had destroyed or badly damaged much of the infrastructure of colonial states and brought considerable havoc in the estates and mines of the colonial economy. The basis of the former colonial economies of Southeast Asia was further undermined by the different demands which the new colonial power made of the region. For example, according to the Commodity Materialisation Plan the value of Malaya, lay in its coal and iron rather than its rubber and tin, while the intention was to extract oil, nickel and bauxite from Indonesia. The effectiveness of Japan's command economy, however, rested on command of the sea and air; yet this was short lived, because of American victory at Midway in June 1942. Trade collapsed owing to a surfeit of traditional exports and a great shortage of vital imports. ...read more.


Out of the 837 tin mines operating in Malaya in 1940, either with dredges or ravel pumps less than 100 were worked during the occupation period and production fell nearly 90%. Tin mining in Billiton came to an almost complete halt. The acreage under tea in Indonesia was reduced by 52%, that under coffee by 28% and production dropped drastically. In 1942, the coal mines of Tongking were halved compared with the 1937 figure. Philippines sugar, which suffered an immediate setback due to Japan's lack of interest, was destined to be replaced by cotton. The cultivation of sugar in the Philippines was only sufficient to meet local needs or to produce liquid fuel and alcohol for Japanese military purposes. More than half of Java's sugar factories were converted for the production of cement and in 1945, the yield of sugar was one-fifteenth that of 1942. 5. The Japanese concentrated on products which they were interested. Thus, the mining of bauxite (for aluminium) in Indonesia was carried on throughout the entire war, with the total output exported to Japan. In agriculture the Japanese also introduced new crops or used existing products for other purposes than they were customarily were. For eg: they converted sesame oil and castor-oil into lubricants.The Japanese had also hoped to set up a large commercial cotton industry in the Philippines.but this was not very successful there was lack of capital, manpower and machinery and cultivation was badly affected by the lack of proper seed preparation and pest control 6. Each territory was forced to stand on its own feet and each had to rely on its own resources which was contrary to the principles the Co-prosperity Sphere plan which provided for the establishment of a viable interlocking economic sphere. 7. From the start there was lack of coordination brought about by the war circumstances and the difficulties of transport and to a greater degree by the autonomous position of the military forces which were in charge locally and whose activities often effectively counteracted whatever programmes of economic development Japan's experts and the government in Tokyo might have planned ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Economy & Economics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Economy & Economics essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    What happened to the income of taxi drivers, and fares paid by consumers in ...

    4 star(s)

    This ensures that no buyer has any economic incentive to pay any firm higher price for the product than is charged by other firms because buyers will compare the prices and find out which firm would charging them less for an identical product.

  2. The structure of the airline industry.

    The introduction of this CALEB? Technologies program will bring AirTran up to Mid-tier airline market status as the same program is already being employed at the major airlines. AirTran is marketing toward the younger generation. They recently revived their "X-fares" promotion. 18-22 year-olds can travel standby to any of AirTran's destinations (except Grand Bahama Island)

  1. Causes of the Great Depression

    Thus wages increased at a rate one fourth as fast as productivity increased. As production costs fell quickly, wages rose slowly, and prices remained constant, the bulk benefit of the increased productivity went into corporate profits. In fact, from 1923-1929 corporate profits rose 62% and dividends rose 65%.

  2. What do you understand to be the concept of entrepreneurship and why has it ...

    Entrepreneurship is the process of creating something new with value by devoting the necessary time and effort, assuming the accompanying financial, psychic, and social risks, and receiving the resulting rewards of monetary and personal satisfaction and independence. Four basic aspects of being an entrepreneur regardless of the field: first, entrepreneurship involves the creation process-creating something new of value.

  1. Challenges of studying East Europe as a region

    Referring to quantitative methods of research, unfortunately the access to statistical data provided to researchers mostly biased information, distorted economic indicators and inaccurate indices. On the other hand this situation represented an interesting challenge for researchers to segregate reliable and biased data.

  2. Retailing In India - A Government Policy Perspective

    This change in consumer spending patterns has turned out to be a major driver of the rapid retail revolution that we have been witnessing over the past few years. 1.4 Anticipated Growth in The Retail Industry The retailing phenomenon that is currently sweeping across the country is here to stay.

  1. Global Business Plan.

    We are in the growth stage of the life cycle simply because we are offering the best quality that there is to offer in China. We have the technology to compete with other air conditioning companies along with the prices that are reasonable. 8. Marketing Mix A. Product/Service i.

  2. How is it possible that a tiny, carbon based stone could effect the lives ...

    With no interference the Angolan economy could grow to be one of the most powerful in the continent. The sad truth is that the dispute described above is only the conflict going on in Angola. There are several other African countries with similar but separate problems with diamond wars.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work