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Nutrients are split into two main groups, the macronutrients which contains carbohydrates, fats and protein and the micronutrients which contains vitamins and minerals. These split groups are based on the amounts of a nutrient needed

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Nutrition assignment 1 Nutrients are the chemical substances which we obtain from food. There are many different nutrients and they all provide the body with different things such as energy, structural materials, regulating agents to support body growth, maintenance and repair of the body's tissues. Nutrients are split into two main groups, the macronutrients which contains carbohydrates, fats and protein and the micronutrients which contains vitamins and minerals. These split groups are based on the amounts of a nutrient needed in a person's daily diet. Therefore, we should eat more carbohydrates, fats and proteins each day than vitamins and minerals. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are composed of composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen to form compounds. Carbohydrates have a general molecular formula of CH O, this means that for every carbon and oxygen atom there will be twice as many hydrogen atoms. Carbohydrates are made up of sugar molecules which are classed into different groups depending on how many sugars the carbohydrate contains. There are monosaccharides, which is made up of one sugar, disaccharides which consist of two sugars and there are polysaccharides which consists of many sugars. Monosaccharides and disaccharides are called 'simple carbohydrates' as they taste sweet and dissolve in water. Simple sugars enter the bloodstream soon after eating. Polysaccharides are called 'complex carbohydrates' as they do not taste sweet and will not dissolve in water. Polysaccharides take longer to break down than simple sugars and therefore glucose is released into the bloodstream at a much slower rate. ...read more.


If there is one double bond, the fatty acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid. It is recommended a person has a maximum of 12% daily kilocalories coming from this fat. If there is more than one double bond, then the fatty acid is known as polyunsaturated. It is recommended that a person has a maximum of 10% of daily kilocalories coming from this type of fat. There are essential fatty acids which must be incorporated into the diet. These fatty acids are linoleic and linolenic acid. The richest sources of linolenic acid include seed oils, nuts, meat from grass-fed animals and green, leafy vegetables. Linoleic acids is found in fish oils and also in the flesh of oily like mackerel, salmon, kippers, herring, trout and sardines. If these acids are not eaten the person is in danger of suffering from grown retardation, reproduction failure, skin lesions, kidney and liver disorders and subtle neurological and vision problems. Cholesterol is a fat which is an essential part of the body; it is found in cell membranes and several hormones. Some cholesterol comes from our diet but mostly it is produced in the liver from saturated fats. If a person is suffering from obesity, does not take part in exercise or eats a large amount of fatty acids cholesterol levels can become increased. Fat provides a concentrated source of energy. It stores fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K. ...read more.


RDI - 5000 international units * Betacarotene - This performs a similar function to vitamin A and is found in plants. When there is a shortage of vitamin A in the diet it is used in the place of vitamin A. However, whereas vitamin A is a minor anti oxidant, betacarotene is a super antioxidant. Betacarotene can be found in sweet potatoes, carrots, cantaloupe, spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables. It you have a deficiency in this vitamin it will be shown in the form of night blindness, impaired growth and dried skin. RDI - 5 to 15 mg or 10 000 to 25 000 international united B Vitamins are different to the other types although they are not chemical related they often occur in the same food. Their main function is to aid in metabolism of food. * Vitamin B-1 (thiamine) - This vitamin helps convert food to energy. Aids the nervous and cardiovascular system. It can be found in rice bran, pork, beef, peas, beans, wheat germ, oatmeal and soy beans. RDI - 1.5 mg * Vitamin B-2 (riboflavin) - This vitamin aids the body in growth and reproduction. Helps to metabolise fats, carbohydrates and proteins and promotes healthy skin and nails. It can be found in milk, liver, yeast, cheese, leafy green vegetables, fish and eggs. RDI - 1.7 mg * Vitamin B-3 (niacin) - This helps to keep the nervous system balanced and is important for the synthesis of sex hormones, thyroxine, cortisone and insulin. This can be found in poultry, fish peanuts, marmite, rice bran and wheat germ. ...read more.

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