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Testing For Food Constituents In Different Types Of Milk.

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Introduction

Testing For Food Constituents In Different Types Of Milk. Introduction: There are many different types of milk now available to purchase, each type has been processed in a certain way. The processing procedure means that each milk contains different food constituents and has a different nutritional value. The aim of this experiment is to investigate how the processing of milk affects the food constituents that it contains. We shall use several common food testing techniques in order to carry out this experiment. Changes To Procedures: As we were conducting the experiment, we made some alterations to the procedures, by changing these factors the experiment was not only easier to carry out, but it also meant that it would help us gain results that were as accurate as possible, and therefore allow us to draw conclusions from them. The first change we made was to the method of testing for reducing sugars. The original method suggested that 0.3 cm3 of the solution to be tested should be used, however we changed this amount to 0.5 cm3, this made the amount much easier to measure out. The fact that it was easier to measure out means that it is more likely that the amount of each milk added with the benedict's reagent was equal, this would ensure that the test was fair and thus improve the accuracy of the results obtained. Another change we made to this particular test, was that we found that it was necessary to leave the test tubes in the water bath for 15 minutes, rather than the planned 8 minutes. When we checked our test tubes at 8 minutes, we found that there had not been much change in the appearance of the solution. 8 minutes was not a sufficient amount of time to gain accurate results, as it was difficult to distinguish any change. By leaving it for 15 minutes, we ensured that the procedure was as accurate as possible. ...read more.

Middle

We can make some conclusions from the results we obtained, but in order to be entirely certain that these conclusions were accurate we would have to repeat the procedure, using an improved method. Although our test for reducing sugars was not successful, the results should have been that the solution turned brick red, the reason we could not obtain these results may have been due to many factors, but it is likely to be because we did not leave the solution in the water bath for long enough, along with the fact that milk generally does not have a high percentage of sugar content anyway. It is both clear and logical to make the conclusion that the processing of milk does affect its nutritional content to some extent. Although there is not much difference between the results for UHT whole milk and whole milk, it is clear that skimmed milk has quite a different nutritional content to the other two. Skimmed milk is designed to be less fattening and thus have a lower lipid content - according to my results this lower lipid content is made up by the higher content of protein in the skimmed milk sample. Below I have recorded some information from the packaging of the milk, this enables me to see the results that my experiments should have indicated. Analysis of Samples: Reducing Sugar Content (Benedicts Test): Food Constituent: (g/100 ml). Type of Milk: Whole Milk. UHT Milk. Skimmed Milk. Reducing Sugar. 4.8 4.7 5.0 Lipid Content (Sudan III Test): Food Constituent: (g/100 ml). Type of Milk: Whole Milk. UHT Milk. Skimmed Milk. Lipids. 3.9 3.6 0.1 Protein Content (Biuret Test): Food Constituent: (g/100 ml). Type of Milk: Whole Milk. UHT Milk. Skimmed Milk. Proteins. 3.2 3.2 3,3 This nutritional information indicates to me that skimmed milk contains the most reducing sugars, and that whole and UHT milk have approximately the same amount. ...read more.

Conclusion

There were often bubbles in the syringe which also made it harder to ensure the measurements were accurate. This lack of accuracy is likely to have affected the results, and therefore by making it more accurate, the results obtained would be much more accurate. I would also ensure that I cleaned the syringe more thoroughly when transferring liquids. If the syringe was not thoroughly cleaned then the test would be unfair and thus would lead to inaccurate results. In addition, to this I would label the test tubes more accurately, as I found myself getting confused with which test tube contained which substance. Another alteration I would make would be to change the time the test tube was left in the water bath when testing for reducing sugars. Although we did change the procedure so that it was immersed for 15 minutes (rather than 8), the time still did not seem sufficient. When we removed the solution, the colour was not as we expected, and this was due to the fact that it was not heated for long enough. By leaving it for longer, we could be certain that the procedure was finished and that the results obtained were as accurate as possible. Finally, I would repeat the method as many times as possible - the more times you repeat an experiment, the more accurate the results will be. By repeating the experiment, not only would it be easier to identify any anomalous results, but also I could find an overall result which is accurate as possible. There are also ways that this investigation into the food constituents in milk could be extended. You could use the same procedures to test on different types of milk, there are so many different types of milk and each is likely to be different in it's nutritional value. You could try testing other processed foods for different food constituents. Finally, you could test for different constituents using more food testing techniques, for example, starch or non-reducing sugars. 1 Kerry Phillips. 17/11/04. 12.9 Biology. 1 Miss Fox. Testing For Food Constituents In Milk. ...read more.

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