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Form an opinion on how Shakespeare in his play "Macbeth" appeals to seventeenth century interests and beliefs in witchcraft.

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Introduction

The aim of this coursework is to form an opinion on how Shakespeare in his play "Macbeth" appeals to seventeenth century interests and beliefs in witchcraft. For this purpose the research has been carried out through detailed analysis of the play, as well as through the study and evaluation of materials presented in books, professional publications and websites, so as to explain seventeenth century views about witchcraft and to state how the witches played a role in Macbeth's downfall. Macbeth is considered to be one of the most popular and masterful work of drama with an appeal that has lasted for centuries. Macbeth was most likely written between 1605 and 1606 following the succession of James the Sixth of Scotland to the English throne as James the first of England in March 1603. Its story of a once noble man brought down by temptation is timeless: it appealed to the seventeenth century audiences, and it appeals equally to performers and audiences nowadays. We are amazed at the playwright's deep understanding of human nature, as he makes the spiritual downfall of Macbeth, the main character, horrifyingly clear. At the time, Shakespeare wrote Macbeth, people were interested in the idea of the supernatural and the unknown. This seems to be one of the reasons why Shakespeare chose to write a play about this particular theme. The belief in the existence and power of witches was widely accepted in Shakespeare's days. The practice of witchcraft was seen to challenge the established order of religion and society, and hence was not tolerated: "Witch hunting was a respectable, moral, and highly intellectual pursuit through much of the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries"1. ...read more.

Middle

The witches flatter him in two ways. First, the witches greet Macbeth as a superior, "all hail, Macbeth! Hail to thee, Thane of Glamis." (Act 1 Scene 3). This courteous salutation, "hail," is only used for the great leaders of men, not subordinates like Macbeth, who at this point in the play is only a vassal of King Duncan. The only other instance in which one of the characters in the play is greeted by "hail" is when Malcolm takes power at the end of the play after Macbeth's head is chopped off (Act 5 Scene 8). Never outside of Act 1 Scene 3 is it used to refer to Macbeth. The witches greeting to Macbeth also flatters him by differentiating him from Banquo. While Banquo at this point in the play is an equal of Macbeth, Banquo is not greeted at all; the witches do not even refer to Banquo until halfway through the scene. And the witches only refer to him after he begs the witches to predict his future. The witches appear announced by a roll of thunder, to relate their misdeeds to each other, and the audience: "FIRST WITCH: Where hast thou been, sister? SECOND WITCH: Killing swine". "Killing swine" was exactly the kind of thing that accusations of witchcraft in England turned upon, so this fact could definitely draw the attention of the audience. The First Witch then continues with: "Here I have a pilot's thumb, Wrecked as homeward he did come." And this may again be read as an allusion to which the audience of that period would respond. The use of joints of the dead to raise storms and the general prohibition of grave-robbing for sorcery was imported into England with James VI and I, when the English ...read more.

Conclusion

At the beginning of the play she is Macbeth's "dearest partner of greatness", but at the end she is his "fiend-like queen". She has a desire for power and she provokes Macbeth to seize the throne of Scotland by murdering Duncan. In my opinion, she is the same symbol of evil as the witches. Macbeth is brave when it comes to thought but when he is faced with the action, he hesitates and has to be persuaded into action by lady Macbeth and the prediction of the witches. However, in my opinion, Macbeth is neither forced into crime by Lady Macbeth nor by the witches. Macbeth chooses evil knowingly, and it is him alone, who is responsible for the consequences that follow. In conclusion, it is important to underline that Shakespeare used many different aspects of the supernatural to make his play fascinating for the seventeenth century audience as well as for the audiences of today. In his tragic play, Shakespeare exercises the thematic tools of witchcraft, darkness, horror as these themes appeal to the audience's curiosity of the mysterious and thus strengthen their interest. Without the mystery in this play, the plot would be ordinary, and there would be nothing unusual to attract the attention of the reader. It is these tools that are also used to provide insight into the motivations and thoughts of the characters. The darkness, witches, visions and hallucinations, all add to the plot of this play and make Macbeth a play that can surely keep the attention of the reader and audience. 1 The Witches' Influence on Macbeth by Jennifer Riedel online available from http://www.engl.uvic.ca/Faculty/MBHomePage/ISShakespeare.html 2 http://www.verona-world.de/group2/supernat.htm 3 Thornton B (2001) Macbeth, Shakespeare Lesson, Stratford upon Avon: Croft Study Centre www.croftstudycentre.freeserve.co.uk/macbeth 4 Underhill R (1995) Stage and State: The Censorship of Macbeth, Shakespeare by Individual Studies, www.engl.uvic.ca/Faculty/MBHomePage/ISShakespeare/Resources/Essex 5 Witchcraft Trials in Scotland ://homepages.tesco.net/~eandcthomp/#Endnotes 6 http://www.geocities.com/heartland/ranch/8728/macbeth.html 1 ...read more.

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