• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Common types of coastal problems are: pollution, erosion, salt intrusion, flooding calamities, habitat degradation / loss of biodiversity.

Extracts from this document...


Anne Milot Enviromental Geography Topic: Coastal Problems Common types of coastal problems are: pollution, erosion, salt intrusion, flooding calamities, habitat degradation / loss of biodiversity. Coastal erosion of rocky cliffs and sandy beaches results from the action of ocean waves and currents. This is especially severe during storms. In many parts of the world the loss of land due to coastal erosion represents a serious problem. The action of waves, however, does not extend to a great depth, and the sea tends to cut a flat platform, characteristic of marine erosion, into coastal rocks. Various measures can be taken to reduce the risk of flooding, especially in the settled parts of floodplains. One of the most effective methods of reducing damage has been to alter the size of floods themselves. By planting trees, controlling soil erosion, and preserving wetlands, people have helped to reduce the size of floods. Special channels have been constructed to divert floodwaters away from built-up areas. The construction of dams has also been a very successful means of controlling floods. Constructing dams, however, can also alter the processes that shape the floodplains farther downstream. ...read more.


was enacted in 1973 to protect endangered or threatened species and their habitats. The Convention on Biological Diversity, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992 and ratified by more than 160 countries, obligates governments to take action to protect plant and animal species. In the last three decades, focus has shifted away from the preservation of individual species to the protection of large tracts of habitats linked by corridors that enable animals to move between the habitats. Thus the movement to save, for example, the spotted owl of the Pacific Northwest, has become an effort to protect vast tracts of old-growth timber. Promising as these approaches may be, conservation efforts will never succeed in the long run if the local economic needs of people living in and near threatened ecosystems are not taken into account. This is particularly true in developing countries, where much of the world's remaining undisturbed land is located. At the end of the 20th century, international organizations such as the World Bank and the World Wildlife Fund launched a movement for all countries in the developing world to set aside 10 percent of their forests in protected areas. ...read more.


The same principles are applied to the harvesting of trees, plants, animals, and other natural resources. Preserving biodiversity also takes place at the molecular level in the conservation of genetic diversity. All around the world efforts are being made to collect and preserve endangered organisms' DNA, the molecule that contains their genes. These collections, or gene banks, may consist of frozen samples of blood or tissue, or in some cases, they may consist of live organisms. Biologists use gene banks to broaden the gene pool of a species, increasing the likelihood that it will adapt to meet the environmental challenges that confront it. Many zoos, aquariums, and botanical gardens work together to carefully maintain the genetic diversity in captive populations of endangered animals and plants, such as the giant panda, the orang-utan, or the rosy periwinkle. Captive animals are bred with wild populations, or occasionally released in hopes that they will breed freely with members of the wild population, thus increasing its genetic diversity. These gene banks are also an essential resource to replenish the genetic diversity of crops, enabling plant breeders and bioengineers to strengthen their stocks against disease and changing climate conditions. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Physical Geography section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Physical Geography essays

  1. To what extent should Walton-on-the-naze be protected from the sea?

    Beach replenishments: Beach replenishments are beaches that are fed artificially with material from another location. Beach replenishment materials include materials like; sand, shingle or pebbles. The idea of beach replenishment is to restore old beaches and thus build up a better natural defence against the sea.

  2. Cliff erosion in East Sussex - the processes, problems and solutions.

    Cliff Profiles Rottingdean:- Rottingdean is an inactive cliff because a coastal path and a sea wall have been built here. The cliff used to be active; this can be seen by the wave-cut platform primarily at low-tide, until man built a sea wall and placed an artificial beach there to protect the cliff.

  1. Bangladesh floods.

    They would have to train a few villagers in basic health care. This scheme would reduce the risks of disease spreading and provide immediate help for injured people. I don't think anyone will be in favour for this scheme because it does not prevent the floods from happening or saving

  2. Comparison between Cambridge park and candie gardens

    The following charts show transport around Cambridge Park and Candie Gardens. These supported my hypotheses of, 'There will be more public transport around Cambridge Park as opposed to Candie Gardens'. The following chart was very useful in determining how true the following hypotheses are; 'Candie Gardens will attract more tourists whilst Cambridge Park will have more locals'.

  1. The development of agri-businesses may be creating more problems than it is solving. Discuss

    English Nature Against They promote the conservation of England's wildlife and natural features. They are mainly concerned about the effects on the environment, wildlife and the general ecosystem that GM crops and technology may cause havoc to. Monsanto For It is a life sciences company committed to finding solutions to

  2. Bangladesh Flooding

    Floods also cause sewages to spill which is a serious health hazard. Bacteria, mould and viruses, cause diseases which is another major damage especially in the rural areas where people can't afford medicines. Soil is eroded by large amounts of fast flowing water, ruining crops, destroying land and buildings.

  1. Epping Forest

    Quadrate- the quadrate is a big square that has little squares inside of it the way you use it is you put the quadrate at a random place on a field and see if there is and bare ground, grass and broad leaf.

  2. To what extent is the River Roding a flooding threat to the area in ...

    Redbridge: Grid Reference: 387 972 The bridge at Redbridge is adjacent to the M11 Motorway and is next to Redbridge roundabout. It is also opposite some recreation ground as in Eton Manor Rugby Club. The River Roding runs along the M11 and also next to a public footpath there.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work