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Using case study evidence suggest how the following factors make demands upon coastal areas; Domestic and residential, Agriculture, Industry, Tourism and Leisure.

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Introduction

Using case study evidence suggest how the following factors make demands upon coastal areas; +Domestic and residential +Agriculture +Industry +Tourism and Leisure Our coastline is being reduced each year due to eroding, visitor pressure and degrading. The above factors are the main reasons why our coastlines are being wiped away each year. Each factor is a category with many more reasons for demands on coastal areas. Demands can either be positive or negative which usually means that most of the factors lead to destructive impacts around coastal regions. I will use as many case studies as possible to provide evidence that will suggest how these factors make demands upon coastal areas. Domestic and residential The building of houses, roads and hotels at the coast create a problem for the coastline. They put great pressure on the land eroding and the dangers that come with living at the coast. In Maine, USA, concerned citizens met a conference to discuss the pressure of buildings and roads on their coast. They concluded that; 'The influx of new residents to the shore means more people building homes and roads, and then worrying as the sea inevitably encroaches on the land' Professor Joe Kelley from the university of Maine had previously made a survey of Maine's beaches. He stated at the conference his conclusion, which I find very interesting. His main points were; +Beaches are retreating landward over the long-term in response to rising sea level +Beaches respond to storms by losing sand to offshore areas and reclaiming during calm summer periods +Developed beaches with seawalls have much less sand than natural beaches and lose and gain more over the course of a year. ...read more.

Middle

tonnes of untreated and contaminated waste generated from cage salmon farming goes directly into the sea, equivalent to the sewage of a population of up to three quaters of Scotland's population. Once the resulting algal blooms die, they settle to the bottom where their decompostion depletes the oxygen. Another case study, which shows the demands agriculuture, puts on coastlines are in Ghana, Africa. On the Volta River they built a dam in 1961 which was called the Akosombo dam. When they built the dam they stopped the flow of sediment which went to the coastline. They built the dam for irrigation purposes, as there is only rainfall at certain times of the year. This made demands on the coasts of the neighbouring countries Togo and Benin. Since the dam was built the beachs in these countries have totally disappeared as the sediment has stopped coming to them to prevent tem from being washed away. This is not the only demand as from then every year since there has been metres of land being washed away by the sea. In 1984 this led to a 100m stretch of raodway being destroyed and washed away. Industry There are many major settlements along the coastlines accross the world. With these major setllements comes a large percentage of industry. Industry at the coast is more beneficial to bussineses because of the use of ports to import and export goods. A major import for most countries is oil which not properly transported can lead to serious problems at sea. ...read more.

Conclusion

Many of those ships, when entering such environmentally sensitive areas inflict serious damage to coral reefs with thier anchors and anchor chains. So, not only do these ships cause damage, they also bring in tourists who congest and crowd beaches, also leading to coral breakage and other damages. A more local case study is Ireland were during the 1970's there was a 600% increase in day trips to the west coast. This dramatic surge in tourists resulted in the need for infrastructure and accomodation suitable for such an increase in tourists. This has changed the shape of our coastline and conflicted with natural processes in coastal areas. Tourism also brings another demand to the coast through waste disposal. In Sapporo, Japan the beaches have become so badly polluted that the local government have placed a limited number of tourists at each resort. In our desire to live near the coast, we are destroying or degrading the very resources that make coastal areas so valuable and enjoyable. Currently, nearly two-thirds of the worlds population-some 3.9 billion people-live along the coast or within 160 kilometres of a coast. By 2025, its estimated that 75%, or 6.2 billion people will reside on or near coastal areas. So i conclude that these four factors are making demands too great for coastal areas. Unless these factors are addressed then the state of coastal regions will detiorate. Tourism is a major affect and can be cut down with carefull planning from the government. The other three are harder to tackle and will take time to address. ...read more.

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