• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

With reference to a flood event you have studied assess to what extent it was the result of intense rainfall rather than physical characteristics of the drainage basin or human factors

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Thomas Healy L6G With reference to a flood event you have studied assess to what extent it was the result of intense rainfall rather than physical characteristics of the drainage basin or human factors? (15) Carlisle is a large city situated on the flood plain of the River Eden, with three rivers meeting the in the city (confluence). The catchment area of the River Eden is comprised mainly of rural areas, making up 99%, this is in stark contrast to the 1% of urban areas that withhold Carlisle’s 244,000 people. The catchment covers an area of 2400km2 and has a vast history of flooding dating back to the 1700’s. The flooding of much of Carlisle in 2005 affected 2700 homes and killed and killed 3, injuring many more. After the flood had ceased in late 2007 the damage was clear – a startling £400 million. ...read more.

Middle

This is due for a number of physical reasons. Firstly, the area had flooded many times before, leaving the soil saturated and unable to withhold much more water. When the excessive amount of water reached the soil, it simply could not hold it and therefore it existed as surface run-off, transferring most of the water to the channel causing a rise in discharge. The geology of the area did not allow the rainfall to infiltrate as much as was necessary ? Impermeable slate and volcanic rocks in the Skiddaw area, along with sandstone and limestone in the Vale of Eden. These rock types did not allow the water to percolate down through the rocks and thus through flow transfers water to the channel. The steep slopes increase the amount of runoff, along with the fact that many of them were comprised of thin soil as time available for infiltration is reduced. ...read more.

Conclusion

If these human aspects had have been improved the magnitude of the flooding would have been to a much lesser scale. To conclude it seems that the collaboration of intense rainfall, physical and human factors were deadly concoctions that ultimately lead to the flooding of Carlisle. Despite this each played a different role and had a different responsibility for the disaster. I believe the intense rainfall resulted in the flooding; this was the major problem, although the other two factors amplified the situation. My assumption is in line with data collected after the flood with states that: ?67% of the flooding resulted from rivers and watercourses, 25% of flooding was caused by surface water, 8% was due to flooding from sewerage and infrastructure.? The fact that the soil and rock could let the water infiltrate them was a deciding factor but the sheer amount of water that caused the surface runoff, despite flood defences was overwhelming for the area. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Physical Geography section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Physical Geography essays

  1. Bangladesh flood

    This makes it hard for emergency supplies to get through, and it is difficult to find places to drop any emergency supplies as well. There are also the good effects of flooding. The layers of silt are very fertile; this enables more crops to be grown.

  2. The Boscastle Flooding

    Risk can be reduced by flood defence schemes, which must also be environmentally sensitive. Flood defence options include: * Increasing storage capacity (by restoring the floodplain; upstream storage; modifying catchment run-off e.g. with the use of Sustainable Drainage Systems. * Structures (e.g. flood walls or embankments) * Increased conveyance (e.g.

  1. Is Hong Kong a normal city?

    On Staunton Road there were many services and Commercial land use because there were quite a lot of pedestrians who were buying goods or walking on their way to another destination. As you can see on the Pie Chart, on Des Voeux Road that part of Hong Kong must have

  2. Where is the Yangtze River and what are its characteristics?

    Therefore the Yangtze is an excellent provision in which the majority of the poor Chinese population can wash clothes, clean them, cook, nourish crops. A resourceful amount of water also makes it easier for farmers to breed animals such as chickens, cattle etc.

  1. New Orleans Geology

    This situation could actually be prevented using erosion and sediment control techniques such as gabion walls. A gabion wall is basically a retaining wall made out of heavy duty galvanized wire boxes that are filled with stone or stand and then are stacked in tiers that follow the slope that they are placed on (Maccaferri, 2010).

  2. Boscastle Flood - Info

    This is unsympathetic although they have dropped the "Wacko" which shows a little respect. The "RIP" bit of the heading is crude, disrespectful and ironic. It is an abbreviated version of "Rest in Peace" however, this was hardly true as millions of people were watching the entire memorial, and therefore

  1. Describe and explain the changes that take place in land use of the River ...

    This changes the land quite a lot. The meanders cause change in the river course. Ox-bow lakes are formed by the large hydraulic action eroding the insides of meanders, cutting of the curve.

  2. I agree to a large extent with the statement Urbanisation within a drainage basin ...

    and throughflow. This results to less groundwater being present and hence, a decrease in base flows. This leads to a higher and faster discharge after a storm as water would reach the river channel faster by HOF instead of infiltration, SOF or throughflow.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work