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Basic Normal Stages of Child Development

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Basic Normal Stages of Child Development This section is a brief overview of child development looking at children from birth to the age of five. It is easiest show this information as part of a table as it enables us to compare different parts of a child's development along side each other. It is also very important to realise that the ages and time frames shown in the table have been taken from the average ages and would not be cause for concern if a child developed slightly slower than shown in the table bellow. Physical and Language Emotional Social Birth to 1 month: The child generally needs feeding at least five times a day and sleeps for about twenty hours every day. The child can make basic distinctions using his senses The child is under generalized tension The child at the point is helpless and asocial which means that they are fully dependant on there parent 2 to 3 months: The child can now fully perceive the full range of colours and is now trying to explore the surroundings orally. The child can now make basic sounds such as basic cries and grunts, has full control of eye muscles and can lift his head when on it's stomach The child understands two emotions now, delight and distress, so the emotional extremes have now been established The child can now fixate his gaze over a person or object with slightly more social understanding, they may also be soothed by rocking. 4 to 6 months: Can now localise sounds and is now entering a stage of babbling, this means that the child is starting to learn the basic sounds of the individual letters. The child does not need feeding quite as much now and has an increased motor ability giving the child control of head and arm movements the child can own grasp purposefully, therefore showing important signs of fine motor development The child is starting to develop some basic likes and dislikes; noticeably the child is expected to enjoy being cuddled. ...read more.

Middle

Language Development in Children Language development is a complex yet fascinating part of child development. It is still not fully understood why young children have the ability to pick up language so quickly. A young developing child who groups up exposed to more than his own basic language has an incredible advantage. The table that follows is a descriptive chart showing the development of an average child from 6 months to 8 years. Age of Child Typical Language Development 6 Months Vocalization with intonation Responds to his name Responds to human voices without visual cues by turning his head and eyes Responds appropriately to friendly and angry tones 12 Months Uses one or more words with meaning (this may be made up of parts of words) Understands simple instructions, especially if vocal or physical cues are given Practices variation Is aware of the social value of speech 18 Months Has vocabulary of approximately 5-20 words Vocabulary made up mainly of nouns Some echolalia (repeating a word or phrase over and over) Is able to follow simple commands 24 Months Can name a number of objects common to his surroundings Is able to use at least two prepositions, usually chosen from the following: in, on, under Combines words into a short sentence-largely noun-verb combinations (mean) length of sentences is given as 1.2 words Approximately 2/3 of what child says should be intelligible Vocabulary of approximately 150-300 words Rhythm and fluency often poor Volume and pitch of voice not yet well-controlled Can use two pronouns correctly: I, me, you, although me and I are often confused My and mine are beginning to emerge Responds to such commands as "show me your eyes (nose, mouth, hair)" 36 Months Use pronouns I, you, me correctly Is using some plurals and past tenses Knows at least three prepositions, usually in, on, under Knows chief parts of body and should be able to indicate these if not name Handles three word sentences easily Has a vocabulary of around 900-1000 words ...read more.

Conclusion

I proposed a game that made the child use the benefits of operant conditioning through my findings studying the work of B.F Skinner and the Skinner box. Basically the child has to use to trial and error to find a pair of cards with the same number on them to move a space on the boards I created. When one child has had a go, the second child has a turn to try and find a pair of cards. On my next page was a board I have designed for the game, and the explanation of the board and how to play follow. Evaluation of the Learning Aid I created the game after a brainwave I had whilst playing cards with friends, I just thought that card games can be very sociable activities, and generally very easy to learn to play. The game is safe for anyone to play even two children on there own could play this, even slightly older children may enjoy the simplicity of the card football game. I chose to incorporate Lucius' love of football into the game as I thought young children may like the idea of scoring a goal when they get enough pairs. I tested the finished game first with Lucius' and then with other children from his school in younger years, most of the students enjoyed the game, and there teacher actually said that she thought the game may help them to develop their numeric skills, and social skills as well as provide a social game for the students to play, one of the students even asked me if I could make a board for him, so I gave him my template copy as I knew I had the board saved on computer anyway. Even the girls of the young group enjoyed the game but said that they didn't like the board as it represented football, so I explained to them that as they liked horses that they could make a horse board and instead of scoring a goal you could call it either a 'clear round' or a 'race win'. ...read more.

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