• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Cold War: Divisions of Europe by 1949

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Social Studies Essay Question "From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent." By 1949, Europe had been divided into communist and non-communist 'blocs'. It may be argued that the predominant cause of this division was the Berlin Airlift crisis. However, there are multiple causes to take into account, in particular Soviet expansion into Eastern Europe and the Truman Doctrine and Marshall plan of 1947. These factors built up tension, resulting in the definite divisions of Europe by 1949. In many regards the roots of Europe's divisions lay in the Soviet expansion into Eastern Europe. "We want friendly sates around us." This was Stalin's motive for Soviet expansion into Europe. ...read more.

Middle

Churchill's speech was directed at the USA, to 'wake' them from their policy of "Isolationism". He stated his opposition to the formation of communist governments in all of Eastern Europe, stating that, "The Communist Parties...are seeking everywhere to obtain totalitarian control." Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech was the first vocalised statement discussing the imminent divisions of Europe. It can also be argued that a key factor leading to the divisions of Europe was US foreign policy. The Truman Doctrine and Marshal plan shifted US foreign policy from "isolationism" to "containment" of communism. Truman stressed the threat of communism in his speech to congress in order to obtain money to aid Greece and Turkey, in the fight against communism. The Marshall Plan supplied $13.2 billion to Western, non-communist Europe. ...read more.

Conclusion

However the allies used air corridors to transport 2.3 million tonnes of supplies to their sectors. The USSR, realizing their failure to drive the Western allies out of Berlin, called off the blockade. The Berlin Airlift crisis triggered the development of the NATO in 1949 and Warsaw Pact in 1955. It left Germany divided up until 1989. The crisis cemented the divisions of Europe, placing a boarder from North to South separating communist form non-communist countries. In conclusion, the division of Europe in 1949 was the result of a period of great tension and internal conflicts. Key factors leading to the division included the Soviet takeover of Eastern Europe and the change in US foreign policy. However, the Berlin Airlift crisis was the predominant factor leading to the split between communist Eastern Europe and non-communist Western Europe. By George Lowndes ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE International relations 1945-1991 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE International relations 1945-1991 essays

  1. The Cold War - major events. Revision notes.

    presence of missiles + he said if USA would not attack Cuba it is possible he will remove the missiles 27 October

  2. In What Ways Did The Nazis Attempt To Eliminate All The Jews In Europe ...

    While the Nazis made their way into Europe, Figures from Source J show that the vast majority of the Jews were from Poland. This can be related to the fact that Poland was one of the first countries that the Nazis invaded from the break of war.

  1. Why did the Cold War End?

    Russian oil sales to abroad were also reduced so the government reduced the import of consumer goods. This left Soviet citizens with less to buy and government revenues were also going down. The government soon realized that more money was being spent than the revenues generated.

  2. Cold War Short Essays - Questions and Answers.

    This worsened relations. In conclusion it was a combination of all these reasons that relations changed. However, the most significant reason was because of the Arms Race. This is because the threat of a nuclear war was always present and provoked the USSR and USA to form defensive alliances as a form of protection.

  1. Edexcel Cold War 1943-1991 Revision (Detailed)

    January US and British zones merged into Bizonia. Airlift Truman wanted Berlin to be a symbol of freedom behind the Iron Curtain. June 24 1948 Blockade ï June 28 1948 airlift starts as ‘operation Plainfare’. 90 second interval takeoffs meant that by September 4600 tons of supplies were flying per day.

  2. Cold War Summary, quotes and revision notes.

    * US fleet returned again in 1954 when tensions rose. * Using veto power, US blocked China's entry to United Nations. * Taiwan took China's UN seat * Prevailed until 1971 when US agreed to People's Republic taking the seat.

  1. How did Stalin take over Eastern Europe between 1945 and 1949?

    In Bulgaria a communist government was elected in the 1945 elections, and the communists executed the non-communists. East Germany became a communist controlled state called the German Democratic Republic in 1949. In Romania, the 1945 elections elected communists to power.

  2. Which was the most important as a reason for the development of the Cold ...

    The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Aid (which gave economic aid to European countries to help them recover) were crucial in terms of the development of the Cold War, as suspicion finally turned into open hostility. Many communists actually felt that it was a declaration of war against Communism and so regarded it as the start of the Cold War.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work