• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Cold War: Divisions of Europe by 1949

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Social Studies Essay Question "From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent." By 1949, Europe had been divided into communist and non-communist 'blocs'. It may be argued that the predominant cause of this division was the Berlin Airlift crisis. However, there are multiple causes to take into account, in particular Soviet expansion into Eastern Europe and the Truman Doctrine and Marshall plan of 1947. These factors built up tension, resulting in the definite divisions of Europe by 1949. In many regards the roots of Europe's divisions lay in the Soviet expansion into Eastern Europe. "We want friendly sates around us." This was Stalin's motive for Soviet expansion into Europe. ...read more.

Middle

Churchill's speech was directed at the USA, to 'wake' them from their policy of "Isolationism". He stated his opposition to the formation of communist governments in all of Eastern Europe, stating that, "The Communist Parties...are seeking everywhere to obtain totalitarian control." Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech was the first vocalised statement discussing the imminent divisions of Europe. It can also be argued that a key factor leading to the divisions of Europe was US foreign policy. The Truman Doctrine and Marshal plan shifted US foreign policy from "isolationism" to "containment" of communism. Truman stressed the threat of communism in his speech to congress in order to obtain money to aid Greece and Turkey, in the fight against communism. The Marshall Plan supplied $13.2 billion to Western, non-communist Europe. ...read more.

Conclusion

However the allies used air corridors to transport 2.3 million tonnes of supplies to their sectors. The USSR, realizing their failure to drive the Western allies out of Berlin, called off the blockade. The Berlin Airlift crisis triggered the development of the NATO in 1949 and Warsaw Pact in 1955. It left Germany divided up until 1989. The crisis cemented the divisions of Europe, placing a boarder from North to South separating communist form non-communist countries. In conclusion, the division of Europe in 1949 was the result of a period of great tension and internal conflicts. Key factors leading to the division included the Soviet takeover of Eastern Europe and the change in US foreign policy. However, the Berlin Airlift crisis was the predominant factor leading to the split between communist Eastern Europe and non-communist Western Europe. By George Lowndes ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE International relations 1945-1991 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE International relations 1945-1991 essays

  1. The Cold War - major events. Revision notes.

    presence of missiles + he said if USA would not attack Cuba it is possible he will remove the missiles 27 October

  2. The origin of the Cold War and the partition of Germany

    This made Stalin very suspicious. He believed that they had wanted the Soviet Union to destroy itself fighting Germany on its own. What was the Allies' view? The Allies had spent nearly six years fighting against Hitler; they did not want to see another dictator take his place.

  1. In What Ways Did The Nazis Attempt To Eliminate All The Jews In Europe ...

    build gas chambers that could hold 2,000 people". When the death camps came into existence they were built in remote areas of Eastern Europe. Then, arrangements were mad for the Jews to be rounded up. Jews were collected throughout Germany and every part of Nazi controlled Europe. All the Jews that had to be rounded up were sent to death camps.

  2. Edexcel Cold War 1943-1991 Revision (Detailed)

    Evening dress was put on and dancing in the street happened that night. Results of the crisis 1. Greatly increased East-West rivalry 2. It confirmed the divisions of Germany and Berlin 3. It led to the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation 4.

  1. Cold War Short Essays - Questions and Answers.

    Thus relations worsened between the superpowers. This provoked the USA to form NATO in 1949. This was formed as a defensive alliance consisting of mainly western European countries. The policy was that if one member was attacked by the USSR the rest would help to defend it.

  2. Cold War Summary, quotes and revision notes.

    Americans assumed they would be firmly under Soviet influence - wrong. * Establishment of "People's Republic of China" meant it had spread to Asia. Formosa (Taiwan) * As a result of 1949 communist victory, they took the entire mainland and vast bulk of China's population.

  1. How did Stalin take over Eastern Europe between 1945 and 1949?

    In Bulgaria a communist government was elected in the 1945 elections, and the communists executed the non-communists. East Germany became a communist controlled state called the German Democratic Republic in 1949. In Romania, the 1945 elections elected communists to power.

  2. Which was the most important as a reason for the development of the Cold ...

    The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Aid (which gave economic aid to European countries to help them recover) were crucial in terms of the development of the Cold War, as suspicion finally turned into open hostility. Many communists actually felt that it was a declaration of war against Communism and so regarded it as the start of the Cold War.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work