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Collectivisation

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Introduction

Collectivisation Changes in agriculture accompanied Stalin's policy of industrialisation The Five-Year Plans included the policy of collectivisation. Collectivisation is the policy of creating larger agricultural units where the peasants would farm collectively rather than on individual farms. It was a policy, which had fundamental consequences for the rural population of the Soviet Union. What were the reasons for collectivisation? The NEP left agriculture largely unchanged since the revolution of 1917. By 1928 agriculture in the Soviet Union was still run largely on an individual basis by peasant households under the supervision of the MIR. MIR- an organisation made of village elders that controlled agricultural life in the villages. Since the revolution it had become a genuine peasant body but the Communist Party found it difficult to influence By 1928 economic and political forces were pushing for the abandoning of the NEP and forcing peasants into the collectivisation of farming The link with industry Industrial development would be possible only if it was supported by an increase in agricultural productivity. Industrialisation would lead to an increase in population of towns and cities, a population that would need to be fed by an increase in food supply. The new industries could also require some technology from abroad and the Soviet Union would therefore need a source of foreign exchange to pay for this, thus the government needed food surpluses to export in order to get foreign exchange. In 1928 arguments arose, Stalin had become convinced that the state of agriculture and the attitudes of the peasantry were holding back industrial progress. ...read more.

Middle

Therefore it was natural to see the peasantry as a force against modernisation. 7. Grain was need for export for economic reasons - to boast the Soviet Union's economy. I.e. for the foreign currency. But peasants didn't want to give away their grain, as market prices were low. By early 1929 USSR were forced to import grain and introduce bread rationing. 8. Molotov illustrates the fear of foreign invasion was why the policy of collectivisation was introduced, as he said. "The imperialists have not so far decided to attack us directly", therefore, "we must utilise this moment for a decisive advance". Thus collectivisation provided a ready solution to both short-term and long-term economic problems of the countryside. 9. It was the poorest peasants who volunteered to go into collectives as they had least to lose. 10. Stalin justified his decision to 'liquidate the kulaks' by arguing that he found the authority to do it in the Lenin of "War Communism" that Lenin who called the Kulak, "bloodsuckers, vampires, robbers of the people". 11. By saying the term Kulak was elastic means that it could be applied to any peasant resisting collectivisation, as a Kulak class barely existed by the late 1920's. 12. Historians J. Arch Getty and Lynne Vola are insistent that the social upheavals were not simply imposed from above, but that Stalin's plans found clear resonance 'below', in the party and in Society. 13. Tractors, kerosene, salt, matches and soap were all promised to the peasants if they joined the Kolkhoz. 14. Right deviationists were the term used to describe peasants who didn't work enough. ...read more.

Conclusion

The Left had also called for rapid industrialisation and the abandonment of the NEP before Stalin was ready to do so. Because the left were associated with the views of Trotsky it was relatively easy to attack them as enemies of the state. Trotsky continued to denounce Stalin Zinoviev and Kamenev were the two most prominent members of the left. 2. Zinoviev and Kamenev were accused of working as Trotsky's agents to undermine the state. 3. They confessed to crimes that they could not possibly have carried out they were wider severe pressure from the NKVD. 4. Zinoviev and Kamenev also implicated others in the conspiracy including the former leaders of the right: Tomsky, Bukharin, Rykov. The Purge Of The Soviet Police 1. What and when was the 'Yezhovschina' 2. Why did it come to an end? 3. What impact did the purges have on ordinary Russians? 4. How many people were sent to the Gulag? 5. How many were executed? 1. Yezhovschina was the most violent stage of the purges. It looked from 1936-1938. It was name after Yezhov, the head of the NKVD at the time. 2. Yezhovschina came to an end when Yezhov was dismissed in 1935 his arrest in early 1939 was partly due to Stalin's need for a scapegoat for the excesses of the purges. 3. The old class enemies - the kulaks and Nepmen were rooted out. Children were encouraged to inform on their parents if they suspected them of 'capitalist lendencies'. Malice was responsible for some of the accusations, also the realisation that job opportunities were opened up by the removal of 'unworthy' comrades. 4. There were approximately 1.3 million people sent to Gulags. 5. There were nearly 3/4 people executed rather than imprisoned. ...read more.

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