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How did the Tsar survive Politically in 1905?

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Introduction

How did the Tsar survive Politically in 1905? Firstly, to understand how the Tsarist regime survived in 1905, it is necessary to answer the question: what, politically and socially, happened in 1905? It is then possible to see how Nicholas II dealt with these problems and managed to survive this turbulent year. In the few years previous to 1905 there was increasing social turmoil caused by rapid industrialisation in Russia. Furthermore, there was no legal way of expressing political views as there was no parliamentary system and as a result there was a discontented and oppressed working class and a desperate and poverty stricken peasantry. The working classes, at the time, had to work in very poor conditions for very long hours and for very little pay which angered them further. Additionally, The peasants were poor because they owned no land themselves, had poor harvests and heavy taxation by the Tsar to pay for industrialisation. The middle classes were also discontent because of the absence of a political voice for the vast population. Therefore most sectors of Russian society were in strong opposition to the state. Only the gentry, the state-dependant industrialists, aristocracy and the army supported the regime out of self-interest. ...read more.

Middle

Also, post treaty, the railway network had been freed up so food and supplies were now reaching towns and cities in larger quantities. The Tsar was beginning to become more respectable once again, although the loss of the war had actually caused immeasurable damage to the Tsars, once grand, image. On October 22, 1905, thousands of industrial workers, men, women and children marched to protest peacefully to the Tsar. The march was led by a priest and a union leader called Father Gapon. They marched on towards the Tsar's palace in St. Petersburg, carrying a petition that requested from him the improvement of living conditions, and more freedom of expression. When the crowds were asked to leave, they refused and the guards fired upon the peaceful protesters, resulting in the death of hundreds, and the wounding and trampling of many thousands of people. This tragedy was called 'Bloody Sunday'. This, in turn, sparked an endless number of proletarian strikes, peasant uprisings, as well as further opposition to the Tsar and the tsarist systems he had meant to protect. The peasants respected the Tsar greatly, as the Tsar was the leader of their church and a figure for them to look up to. ...read more.

Conclusion

He had also made reforms to the October Manifesto meaning that the Dumas were filled with his own aristocratic supporters which completely defied the point of having a Duma at all as Russia's population, again, was not represented how they would have wished. Overall, how the Tsar survived politically was mainly due to his irrepressible power that he had over Russia and partially luck. Nicholas was lucky due to the fact that the parties that wanted to revolt had been unorganised and missed their opportunity windows to launch successful revolts, as well as the fact that the parties did not combine early on to combat Tsarist Russia. A crucial factor of the Tsars survival was the fact that Nicholas had his thumb on anyone with power and could use them accordingly. He had the full support of his armed forced at the time and this also quashed any resistance to the Tsar and was a deterrence to any thinking of revolt. He relied heavy on many of his right hand men to think up great schemes and solutions to his problems. These people included the likes of Sergei Witte and Peter Stolypin, whom directed the Tsar in the right direction. If it wasn't for these factors then surely Nicholas II would have been overthrown as he was entirely incapable of running the country alone. ...read more.

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