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Stalin’s Application of Communism

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Stalin's Application of Communism I. Introduction Joseph Stalin's application of Communism from 1922-1953 in the USSR had some differences and similarities to Karl Marx's ideal interpretation of the theory in 1848 when the Communist Manifesto was published. Both, Marx and Stalin interpreted the Communist Manifesto in different ways. One difference between Stalin and Marx was that Stalin focused more on Russia's national security and Russia's communism rather than on world communism like Marx intended. Secondly, Stalin attempted to take control of and speed up Marx's dialectic materialism process, which Marx argued would take place naturally over a longer time span. Marx and Stalin were similar in that they both believed in the overthrow of capitalists, and they both aimed for a dictatorial rule under Communism. This topic is interesting and worthy of study because it allows one to view and understand the entire concept of Communism and how others, such as Stalin interpreted and applied it. Thus, different people understand and apply certain ideas in different ways, yet some main ideas remain analogous. II. Background Marx's ideas and theories are known as Marxism, or scientific socialism. His analysis of a capitalist economy and his theories of historical materialism, the class struggle, and surplus value have become the basis of modern socialist doctrine. After his death, these ideas and theories were revised by many socialists, such as Stalin, who developed and applied them in Russia (Carmichael 122). His analysis of capitalism, dictatorship, communism, and worldwide revolution greatly influenced society in general and especially Stalin's Russia. The Communist Manifesto (Manifest der kommunistischen Partei) ...read more.


According to Marx's ideal theory to work, however, there must have been a worldwide revolution. Perhaps, because his theory wasn't applied correctly, the was no end to war since there was no abolition of all states and governments. Worldwide revolution versus revolution in Russia is a major difference between Marx and Stalin. Marx implies in the first section of his Manifesto that as the proletariat increases in number and political awareness, heightened class antagonism will generate a revolution and the inevitable defeat of the bourgeoisie. The logic of capitalism, to seek ever greater profit, will constantly revolutionize the means of economic production, which "sets in motion sociohistorical forces that it can no longer control, thus ironically calling into existence the class destined to end its rule" (Hingley 210). According to Karl Marx's dialectic materialism (derived from Hegel), there were three stages of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis that would naturally occur in history. According to Marx, "Every stage is necessary, that is to say justified for the time and under the conditions out of which it arises; but it becomes invalid and forfeits its justification under new and higher conditions which gradually develop within its own womb; it has to give place to a higher stage, which in its turn will decay and persh..." (Ruehle 104). This meant that according to Marx's ideology, Communism would inevitably become a way for society. Once the conditions of a people "worsened" and the gap between the proletariat and the bourgoisie increased in a Capitalist system, Marx anticipated that this system would revolutionize and overthrow the Capitalist system. ...read more.


This would give McNeal more access to historical documents than Trotsky, and result in a less subjective view of Stalin. In his recount of Stalin, he defends certain political actions of Stalin without giving alternatives. Joel Carmichael is a former U.S. naval officer and author of Karl Marx, somewhat praises Karl Marx's accomplishments in his biography published in 1967. However, he shows a very straightforward development of Marx's ideas and explains how they were related to personal struggles, and he gives varying interpretations of Marx's ideas. Carmichael also includes many primary quotes by Marx. This shows that the author is not completely one sided in representing theorist Marx. Hence, this biography is a somewhat reliable secondary source with important facts, although it is biased in praising Marx not showing alternate views of his accomplishments. Therefore, all works used in compiling this document have some subjectivity that limit the actual account of facts and information. The various sources used are valuable, but are not necessarily reliable because they are date collected and interpreted by different people with various opinions. VI. Conclusion In conclusion, there were four principal differences and similarities between Karl Marx's idealistic theories and Joseph Stalin's interpretation and application of them. Both, Marx and Stalin were similar through their belief in the overthrow of capitalism and a democratic dictatorship. However, Stalin also misinterpreted some of Marx's theories. Instead of a worldwide revolution, Stalin solely accomplished a communist revolution in Russia; additionally, instead of and making dictatorship eternal and allowing Communism to occur naturally, Stalin carried through his five year plan and tried to rush what Marx argued was a natural and inevitable process that would occur in history over a long period of time. ?? ?? ?? ?? Nilou Huff 0193-024 11 Nilou Huff 0193-024 ...read more.

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