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The D-day landings.

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Introduction

1) After America's entry into the war the unpreparedness of the US Navy allowed the Germans to wreak massive destruction amongst shipping on the American eastern seaboard during the beginning of 1942. When the situation was stabilised by the introduction of a convoy system, the wolf packs returned to mid-Atlantic. The huge success of their onslaught was helped by the allies temporary loss of ability to read u-boat signals. By the end of 1942, the Allied shipping was in crisis. Losses reached devastating levels again in March 1943 but, thereafter, very effective Allied counter-measures including the introduction of escort support groups, some with aircraft carriers, and Very Long Range aircraft to close the air gap in mid-Atlantic quickly brought a decisive end to the U-boat threat. Although U-boats would continue to operate until the end of the war, the Germans had lost the Battle of the Atlantic by the end of May 1943. The Suez Canal in Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea was very important to Britain as it was the way to the oil fields in the Middle East. Britain fought Germany and Italy in North Africa to stop them getting to the Suez Canal. Whilst Germany fought the Russians in the East, the British had scored a success in North Africa. In October 1942, General Montgomery 8th army had attacked the German Afrika Korps lead by Rommel at El Alamein. The Germans had been defeated and the British had pushed them back westwards. ...read more.

Middle

Security was vital, so the men were confined to base and communication with civilians was discouraged in case the plans for D-Day were leaked. The troops rehearsed the landings on replica beaches. Before the invasion, German radar stations were blocked to increase the risk of a surprise attack. However General Eisenhower put his faith into deception. He realised that the Germans were expecting an invasion but hoped to be able to deceive them about when and where the invasion would take place. The Germans had to be tricked into when the invasion would take place. The allies tried to make Hitler think that the attack would occur at Calais instead of Normandy. The deception was attempted in a number of ways , a dummy army was built in Kent were blow up tanks and lorries were placed so that when the German planes flew over they would think that if the allies were in Kent the invasion would take place in Calais. The fake army put out a huge number of radio transmissions and created many news stories in order to add to the illustration of reality. Dummy landing craft also appeared in the Thames and near Kent. Airfields in Kent and Essex were filled with plywood aircraft. A double of General Montgomery was sent to Gibraltar to try to convince the Germans that a landing in South France or Spain was planned. ...read more.

Conclusion

The allies were successful as they had taken over Caen but the failure was that it had taken them between 4-5 weeks over the expected date to take over Caen. The allies wanted to take over Caen as it was a major town in Normandy. On July 18th, Montgomery launched an attack to capture the bank on the River Orne and to clear the villages south of Caen. This was called Operation Goodwood. This battle was very fierce. On the first day 126 tanks and 1,500 men had been lost by the British. After just 72 hours Montgomery had to call it off. This had opened up the roads south of Caen. The allies were unsuccessful as they had to pull out. On 7th August, Hitler attempted a counter attack, but this was stopped and the Germans were forced to retreat. However, Hitler ordered the Germans to resist where they were which was in Falaise. This area became known as the Falaise Pocket. It was attacked by a combination of British, American, Canadian, French and Polish troops. The allies were successful as Hitler's counter attack had failed causing the Germans to retreat. The Falaise Pocket was very successful as the allies had successfully captured Falaise which was the centre of France. This then gave the allies a route to be able to recapture France as they were going to liberate Paris. On the 25th August the Free French forces were allowed by the allies to liberate Paris. France was now freed. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

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