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Years of Illusion

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Introduction

IB History of the Americas "Years of Illusion" Discussion Questions 1. What was the effect of the break-up of the Ottoman Empire and what two major problems are continued to the present time? The disintegration of the Ottoman Empire enabled the Great Powers to reconstruct the Arab world. On account of the League of Nations' mandate system, the core of the Ottoman Empire was fragmented into six states: Turkey and the five new Arab states of Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Iraq, and Transjordan. Saudi Arabia and Yemen also emerged as distinct political entities. Of the mandates, France controlled Syria and Lebanon, and Britain controlled Palestine, Iraq, and Transjordan. The partition of the Ottoman Empire abolished the last vestiges of Arab unity and, in its place, created a multiplicity of factions united by ethnicity, religion, and tribal affiliation. Such divisions caused sectarian, dynastic, and tribal conflict between inhabitants of the mandates, as in the case of the Kurdish people in northern Syria who revolted against the prospect of submergence in an Arab state. Now as well as before, Kurdish national rights are hindered by three interrelated issues: linguistic and religious diversity; political disunity; and, most importantly, external influence, repeated manipulation, and lack of superpower's support in the midst of such repressive regimes as Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Armenia and Azerbaijan. ...read more.

Middle

A national past was eliminated from textbooks, and it was claimed that Adam was of Turkish descent. And, lastly, Turkish women received both the right to vote and the encouragement to enter the professional work force. 3. What changes did Reza Khan make in Persia? Reza Khan ruled Persia until 1941 in a manner akin to that of an Iranian Kemal, that is, with the determination to achieve Persian independence through modernization. In 1928, he abolished the capitulations, while driving forward industrialization and the improvement of communications. Attributable to his secular aims, Reza Khan abolished the veil and religious school systems, and formed a close association with Turkey. Lastly, he made notable strides in the diplomacy of oil by terminating a concession held by the Anglo-Persian Oil Company. The outcome was evidence of the maturing independence of Persia as well as a turning point in the nation's history, which was further vindicated when Persia was officially renamed Iran in 1935. 4. Who was the leader of the fascio di combattimento and how did the group gain power in Italy? In 1919, Benito Mussolini spearheaded a political movement based on the fascio di combattimento-"union for combat." The group, consisting of a subset of young thugs, sought power by any means, including violence. ...read more.

Conclusion

Modernism was a shift in the focus of the arts to the subjective, from the object depicted or story narrated to a vision, a state of mind and primal reaction, above all to the state of mind of the artist. Characteristics of this art movement included the abandonment of figurative tradition, perspective and illusion of depth. Moreover, a new dislocation of the image in painting emerged. Modernism reached its climax after 1918 in the world of "Dada" and "Surrealism," both of which entered new levels of disintegration. Lastly, Roberts claims the evidence to end of nineteenth-century liberalism is observable in the sweeping changes-the dominance of Freud's philosophy, the chaos of the arts in the form of modernism, the feebleness and intellectual inadequacy of twentieth-century Christianity, and the incomprehensibility of a natural world that seemed unintelligible in a world of bending space and relative time-that caused society seek new bearings. Such a bewildered state perhaps prompted influenced the new irrationalism in politics and reinvigorated older ones, such as nationalism. With the rise of uncertainty as demonstrated in the popularity of Freudianism, the collective values of communism and fascism, modernism, as well as society's search for new bearings, Roberts asserts that a new world perspective emerged at the expense of liberal certainties of the autonomy of the individual, objective moral criteria, rationality, the authority of parents, and an explicable mechanical universe-Putting an end to nineteenth-century liberalism in western civilization. ...read more.

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