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Long Term Adaptations to Training

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Long Term Adaptations to Training In This assignment I will select an endurance type sport and identify and critically analyse the long-term adaptations to the body for an athlete training for this sport. The endurance type sport I have decided to identify, explain and critically analyse is 1500m Swimming. Task 1 Cardiovascular Adaptations To aerobic training The main adaptations that occur to the cardiovascular system through 1500m swimming are that you have a greater stroke volume (pumps more blood), a greater cardiac output that is the quantity of blood ejected by the left ventricle each minute. It is expressed in litres per minute and is calculated by multiplying the stroke volume (volume ejected per contraction) by the number of heart-beats (ventricular contractions) per minute. As the stroke volume is increased; the heart no longer needs to beat as often to get the same amount of blood around the body. The chambers in your heart also get bigger, this is due to the more exercise you do, the faster your heart pumps, which in turn pumps the blood round your body a lot quicker than normal, this also makes the 4 chambers in your body increase. All this exercise gives you bigger muscles this is called muscle hypertrophy. ...read more.


There is also an increase in size and number of mitochondria. There is also an increase in activity of oxidative enzymes, increase in myoglobin content, increase in Vo2 max by 10-20%, the final one is higher percentage of Vo2 max can be attained before threshold is reached. This all helps the endurance swimmer because it increases there muscle size which helps them store more glycogen and fat, so that they don't have to use any protein, keeping the body in its aerobic state. Task 2 Neuromuscular Adaptations To Strength/ Power Training High-intensity training results in hypertrophy of fast twitch fibres( fast twitch fibres increase in proportion in those muscles that are responsible for producing rapid movements, as in the movement of the eye or the hand. The rapid contraction is facilitated by large numbers of mitochondria and an extensive sarcoplasmic reticulm). There are increased levels of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and the PCr (Phosphocreatine) in the muscle and an increased capacity to generate ATP by the PCr energy system. This is partly due to the increased activity of the enzymes, which break down PCr. ATP production by anaerobic glycolysis is increased as a result of enhanced activity of the glycolytic enzymes. ...read more.


The physiological effects of each training set will dictate the amount of each training component scheduled during a given training cycle. low-intensity ,distance training sessions are most effective as this develops aerobic energy and improves capillary density in muscle tissue, proliferation of muscle cell mitochondria, oxidative enzyme activity, and fat substrate mobilization and utilization in the muscle cells. 1998 Montana) Oxygen consumption is considered the standard for measuring the physiological intensity of exercise. If heart rate is the tachometer, then oxygen consumption is how much gas per mile you're burning to achieve a certain speed. In 1500m swimming, success is largely dependent on the body's oxygen uptake ability. The more oxygen that can be delivered to the working muscles, the greater the energy supply, and the faster the body can travel over distance. (1998 Montana) Parry (2005) suggests that training for an endurance sport results in specific structural and functional adaptations to the body and calls upon varying degrees of technique, application, energy production, strength, endurance and speed during performance and development. Maximising performance over time is a balancing act, producing and maintaining a dynamic equilibrium between training and recovery and between general and specific training Parry 2005 Functional training works many large muscle groups together. ...read more.

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