• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Long Term Adaptations to Training

Extracts from this document...


Long Term Adaptations to Training In This assignment I will select an endurance type sport and identify and critically analyse the long-term adaptations to the body for an athlete training for this sport. The endurance type sport I have decided to identify, explain and critically analyse is 1500m Swimming. Task 1 Cardiovascular Adaptations To aerobic training The main adaptations that occur to the cardiovascular system through 1500m swimming are that you have a greater stroke volume (pumps more blood), a greater cardiac output that is the quantity of blood ejected by the left ventricle each minute. It is expressed in litres per minute and is calculated by multiplying the stroke volume (volume ejected per contraction) by the number of heart-beats (ventricular contractions) per minute. As the stroke volume is increased; the heart no longer needs to beat as often to get the same amount of blood around the body. The chambers in your heart also get bigger, this is due to the more exercise you do, the faster your heart pumps, which in turn pumps the blood round your body a lot quicker than normal, this also makes the 4 chambers in your body increase. All this exercise gives you bigger muscles this is called muscle hypertrophy. ...read more.


There is also an increase in size and number of mitochondria. There is also an increase in activity of oxidative enzymes, increase in myoglobin content, increase in Vo2 max by 10-20%, the final one is higher percentage of Vo2 max can be attained before threshold is reached. This all helps the endurance swimmer because it increases there muscle size which helps them store more glycogen and fat, so that they don't have to use any protein, keeping the body in its aerobic state. Task 2 Neuromuscular Adaptations To Strength/ Power Training High-intensity training results in hypertrophy of fast twitch fibres( fast twitch fibres increase in proportion in those muscles that are responsible for producing rapid movements, as in the movement of the eye or the hand. The rapid contraction is facilitated by large numbers of mitochondria and an extensive sarcoplasmic reticulm). There are increased levels of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and the PCr (Phosphocreatine) in the muscle and an increased capacity to generate ATP by the PCr energy system. This is partly due to the increased activity of the enzymes, which break down PCr. ATP production by anaerobic glycolysis is increased as a result of enhanced activity of the glycolytic enzymes. ...read more.


The physiological effects of each training set will dictate the amount of each training component scheduled during a given training cycle. low-intensity ,distance training sessions are most effective as this develops aerobic energy and improves capillary density in muscle tissue, proliferation of muscle cell mitochondria, oxidative enzyme activity, and fat substrate mobilization and utilization in the muscle cells. 1998 Montana) Oxygen consumption is considered the standard for measuring the physiological intensity of exercise. If heart rate is the tachometer, then oxygen consumption is how much gas per mile you're burning to achieve a certain speed. In 1500m swimming, success is largely dependent on the body's oxygen uptake ability. The more oxygen that can be delivered to the working muscles, the greater the energy supply, and the faster the body can travel over distance. (1998 Montana) Parry (2005) suggests that training for an endurance sport results in specific structural and functional adaptations to the body and calls upon varying degrees of technique, application, energy production, strength, endurance and speed during performance and development. Maximising performance over time is a balancing act, producing and maintaining a dynamic equilibrium between training and recovery and between general and specific training Parry 2005 Functional training works many large muscle groups together. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Exercise and Training section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Exercise and Training essays

  1. Short and Long Effects of Alcohol and Smoking

    * Alcohol affects a person's mental state for a long term by causing depression; suicidal tendencies; personality breakdown; inability to concentrate; affected sexual performance; dementia; hallucinations; memory loss and blackouts; mood swings. * Addiction (alcoholism) * Mothers who drink alcohol during pregnancy may give birth to infants with fetal alcohol syndrome.

  2. Logbook on Swimming

    I started off with a simple exercise swimming general from side of the pool to the other and then do some stretches from my calf to my neck.

  1. Before I started to even design my personal exercise programme, I had to find ...

    neurones to the quadriceps initiating the stretch reflex causing a very powerful shortening of the muscle group and enables the athlete to bound upwards. This prevents muscle damage and produces more powerful concentric contraction of the muscle group. This is essentially important in the tennis service as jumping is required to gain power behind the serve.

  2. Sports Science

    My diet is rather varied and differs on a day to day basis. I try to eat my 5 pieces of fruit and vegetables a day and generally do eat health food. There are many training methods possible for me to choose from relating to my chosen sport.

  1. Situation Analysis - Executive Training Inc. (ETI)

    Their two most popular programs are the Principals of Agri Marketing (PAM) and Strategic Agri Selling (SAS).Although these programs are a huge success, ETI is currently exploring options of expanding their product offerings to include some form of online training.

  2. P.E. assignment

    The time immediately before the main activity is crucial. This is the period when the body can prepare for rigorous physical activity. There is no set time for a warm-up. It should be adapted to the demands of the sport and the age of the performer. By warming up, the body systems, muscles and joints gradually become used to working harder.

  1. Sport Science

    Timing- This component is required for me when I'm in my mid fielding position. I will need this to tackle the ball from the opponent. 3. Speed- Speed will be required, when I'm in the attacking position. I have to dash through when I have to score a goal.

  2. Tennis Research Paper

    Recently, however, changes have come with the increasing influence of technology in the conduct of the game. Players in professional leagues now have the ability to challenge the decision of the line judge or center judge through the use of instant replay.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work