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Have the Chinese People Been Better Off In Each of These Area’S Since the Death of Mao?

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Introduction

Have The Chinese People Been Better Off In Each Of These Area's Since The Death Of Mao? In 1967 the Cultural Revolution was at its height and although there were occasional eruptions in 1968, the Chinese communist party slowly began to rebuild the administration of the state and the Red Guard were sent to work in the countryside. Lin Biao was appointed chosen successor in place of Liu Shaoqi at the ninth party congress in 1969. His Peoples Liberation Army soldiers took control of local revolutionary committees, which ran schools, factories and other similar institutions. Right wing party cadres were re-educated through manual labour and thought reform. Government policies were now more socialist than they had been previously. Colleges and universities re-opened in the 1970's and preference was given to people with a farming, worker or peasant background. Economically, output figures were considered less important than the style and attitudes of the workplace and workforce. All institutions (factories and schools for example) were expected to mix theory and practise, so students were spending time in productive work and workers were spending time in the classroom. This aimed to break down barriers between manual labour and education. Sending millions of city dwellers to the countryside was another of Mao's socialist policies, with the intention of equalising society. In the early 1970's the 'socialist spirit' in new China was strikingly apparent. The United States had become more open to China and China was beginning to make connections with the West. In 1971 the People's Republic government replaced the Guomindang in Taiwan as the representatives of China in the United States of America (USA) and in 1972 the president of the USA, President Nixon visited China and opened up trade connections between the USA and China. ...read more.

Middle

Some peasant's worked for themselves, others in families or co-operatives, but it was possible to make a great deal of money and aim to buy the 'Four Big New Things' a TV, a freezer, a cooker and a fridge. A favourite slogan was 'Getting rich is glorious'. The changes in the countryside really meant going back to the way the peasants had always done things. It was different in the towns. The factories had been developed after 1949 on the model of the USSR. Change would take longer. A 'Managerial Responsibility System' was applied to industry in 1984. The state in the future would step back from responsibility in the factories. It would not set production targets or back up any factory, which was not doing well. Except in the industries such as steel and transportation, managers would be responsible for profit and loss. Factories making a good profit could pay out bonuses to their workers and make their own deals with customers and suppliers, sometimes even with foreign ones. If the factory was not successful then the managers could be sacked. New, young, technically trained managers had now taken over in most factories. Mr Yu Weiling, director of the machine tool factory in shanghai said: "Before, the party had all the responsibility. Now the directors have the biggest power. We used to just follow party directives. Throughout the factory we had the 'iron rice bowl'. If you showed up, no matter what you did you got the same pay. Now better work means more money, more bonuses, and we managers have three years to get results." During the Cultural Revolution Gao Yutian was called a 'capitalist tail' by the party when he suggested that skilled workers could make more money working on their own. ...read more.

Conclusion

The government's response was the one-child policy introduced n 1978. Provinces brought in birth-control regulations, which varied in detail and in severity of enforcement from area to area. The usual pattern was rewards for obeying the 'norm' (one child in urban areas and two in the countryside) and penalties for exceeding it. The first child brought a pay bonus or extra land, and priority for education and housing; a second or third meant fines, reduced pay and other punishments, and a long queue for all state services. The new policy went against China's tradition of large families, shared by other peasant societies. When there is no state care for the elderly, people see children as their old age insurance. And in China it is sons who count most, since a daughter joins her husband's family on marriage. Until the government achieved its aim of full state care for the elderly, parents without sons still feared poverty in old age. This fear brought about the in-humane action of parents disposing of baby's if the baby was a girl, until family's had a son. Chinese newspapers drew attention to a survey of 1000 urban factory women who were asked if wished to stop work, they published the letter of a women engineer which stated: "An experienced woman managing the household and raising the family contributes more to society tan when she is employed outside the house." The results of their survey found that the majority of women wished to stop work, especially those aged 29-35. In foreign affairs, Deng developed closer ties with Japan and the West. He travelled to the United States and Japan in 1979, opening the way for better diplomatic and economic relations after decades of isolation. In the 1980s Deng's government negotiated the return to Chinese sovereignty of Hong Kong from Britain in 1997, and Macau from Portugal in 1999. ...read more.

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