• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Hong Kong has a unique history, governing system and economy.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Introduction Hong Kong has a unique history, governing system and economy. These three unique features are crucial to an understanding of the social welfare in the territory. In this essay, I will illustrate the development of social welfare in Hong Kong during different periods. At the end of the paper, I would take a look at the changing attitude of Hong Kong people towards the social policy. Before World War II In this period, the term 'social welfare' refers to limited social security and social services. Due to imperialism and colonialism, social welfare provided by the colonial government was very scarce and developed as a response to address immediate social needs. Besides, the governors of Hong Kong would change after every 4 to 5 years and the population in Hong Kong fluctuated to such an extent that the government see unnecessary to implement any long-term social policy. Social welfare services were mainly provided by voluntary groups such as Christian church and traditional Chinese organization (clansman associations and charity organizations). They were supported by private donations. Health services (e.g. Tung Wah Group of Hospitals (1872) ...read more.

Middle

Overall speaking, the role of government was much more active than before. Into the 1980's This was a period when there were uncertainties over the future of Hong Kong. Thus, this big political factor had brought little long-term development of welfare services. In 1984, British were occupied with the negotiations with the Chinese government and later coming to sign the Sino-British Joint Declaration. The fate of reverting Hong Kong back to the Chinese sovereignty had caused the British to withdraw the making of long-term welfare plans. Into the 1990's At early 1990s, the government continued to carry on her incremental social policy. Incremental social policy was unstable which might easily be upset by a sudden surge in demand. So the government has considered the privatization of social services as an alternative or supplement to the prevailing incremental social policy. e.g. contracting out the meal services for the elderly by Social Welfare Department. Due to the migration of the locals during 1997, there was a serious 'brain-drain' problem. After the handover of the sovereignty in 1997, the political and administration structure had changed. ...read more.

Conclusion

As the people are more educated and being more exposed to different ideas, this facilitated the development of democracy. Also, people tend to be more aware of their rights as a citizen in Hong Kong. The concept that the government should be 'for the people and by the people' has been recognized by most people. Thus, the Government is facing a challenge to strike a balance between the people's expectations and her ability to provide social welfares. During this period of economic downturn, the people may want more from the government, but instead of providing more, the government decided to cut the expenditure on welfare due to huge budget deficit. So, it sounds like the government refuse to hear citizens' cries and demands. The communication gap between the government and her citizens widens. Conclusion Social policy is controversial and full of conflicts. What's more, the disfavoring of welfare provision in Hong Kong by the Central authorities had definitely hindered the government in providing more welfare service. The rigidity in the government may lead to disastrous problems and lead to social instability. Therefore, the Government must think thoroughly and consult the public whenever new policy is implemented. 18 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Politics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Politics essays

  1. 1. Why was 'a welfare state' introduced after the War (note here that the term ...

    The Second World War acted as a catalyst to the emergence of the welfare state. The war effort caused a rational and moral reaction. This penetrated into the politics, economics and governance thinking of the time. The universalistic social policies built up during the war acted as the building blocks of a future post-war welfare state.

  2. The Creation of the Welfare State

    Ignorance or education proved to be the only positive improvement from the 5 giants. The government introduced the Education Act in which poor children enrolled in Free State Secondary schools. This improved children's lives because they were taught skills which would become useful for future jobs.

  1. British History Coursework: The Irish Famine 1845-1849

    for the famine; at this time Britain was heavily involved in colonizing India, and probably gaining massive revenue from this. Seven years later the British government found �70 million to finance the Crimean war. In the end Britain relied on a system of workhouses, where several hundred thousand elderly, infirm

  2. Absolutism is way of governing over a society or people.

    This governing could be achieved though "The Prince". This is where the ruler is considered the head and the people are the body under him.

  1. To what extent has Germany's party system evolved from a multi-party system to a ...

    The third key party to emerge was the FDP, a liberal party. This was a small party, never reaching more than 15% of the votes, yet has been a part of German government for longer than the CDU and SPD and has been a key player in coalition governments.

  2. A Short History of the Basque Country.

    This region corresponded more or less to the area occupied by the present-day Basque Country. When the boundaries were drawn in 1016 between Navarre and the County of Castile, what would now be the Basque country was included in Navarre.

  1. The colonial factor in the Nigerian civil war (1967-1970)

    At independence therefore, Nigeria became a federation and thus remained one country. 2The colonial master, determined to ensure a continued uninterrupted economic exploitation of the country even after independence, recognized that this could only be done by ensuring that the effective political and military powers were left in the hands

  2. How true is it to say that during the period, 1875-1986, continuity is more ...

    Spain was humiliated by the outcome of war. Between 1898 and 1923 the regime stumbled from crisis to crisis. The Colonial disaster had devastating effects and was seen, not just as a military setback, but also as a deep psychological trauma.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work