• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Hong Kong has a unique history, governing system and economy.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Introduction Hong Kong has a unique history, governing system and economy. These three unique features are crucial to an understanding of the social welfare in the territory. In this essay, I will illustrate the development of social welfare in Hong Kong during different periods. At the end of the paper, I would take a look at the changing attitude of Hong Kong people towards the social policy. Before World War II In this period, the term 'social welfare' refers to limited social security and social services. Due to imperialism and colonialism, social welfare provided by the colonial government was very scarce and developed as a response to address immediate social needs. Besides, the governors of Hong Kong would change after every 4 to 5 years and the population in Hong Kong fluctuated to such an extent that the government see unnecessary to implement any long-term social policy. Social welfare services were mainly provided by voluntary groups such as Christian church and traditional Chinese organization (clansman associations and charity organizations). They were supported by private donations. Health services (e.g. Tung Wah Group of Hospitals (1872) ...read more.

Middle

Overall speaking, the role of government was much more active than before. Into the 1980's This was a period when there were uncertainties over the future of Hong Kong. Thus, this big political factor had brought little long-term development of welfare services. In 1984, British were occupied with the negotiations with the Chinese government and later coming to sign the Sino-British Joint Declaration. The fate of reverting Hong Kong back to the Chinese sovereignty had caused the British to withdraw the making of long-term welfare plans. Into the 1990's At early 1990s, the government continued to carry on her incremental social policy. Incremental social policy was unstable which might easily be upset by a sudden surge in demand. So the government has considered the privatization of social services as an alternative or supplement to the prevailing incremental social policy. e.g. contracting out the meal services for the elderly by Social Welfare Department. Due to the migration of the locals during 1997, there was a serious 'brain-drain' problem. After the handover of the sovereignty in 1997, the political and administration structure had changed. ...read more.

Conclusion

As the people are more educated and being more exposed to different ideas, this facilitated the development of democracy. Also, people tend to be more aware of their rights as a citizen in Hong Kong. The concept that the government should be 'for the people and by the people' has been recognized by most people. Thus, the Government is facing a challenge to strike a balance between the people's expectations and her ability to provide social welfares. During this period of economic downturn, the people may want more from the government, but instead of providing more, the government decided to cut the expenditure on welfare due to huge budget deficit. So, it sounds like the government refuse to hear citizens' cries and demands. The communication gap between the government and her citizens widens. Conclusion Social policy is controversial and full of conflicts. What's more, the disfavoring of welfare provision in Hong Kong by the Central authorities had definitely hindered the government in providing more welfare service. The rigidity in the government may lead to disastrous problems and lead to social instability. Therefore, the Government must think thoroughly and consult the public whenever new policy is implemented. 18 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Politics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Politics essays

  1. 1. Why was 'a welfare state' introduced after the War (note here that the term ...

    Other wider war-time movements were afoot; the collectivist impulse brought out by the war, exposure of poverty, changes in neo-liberal economic values and the growing influence of the labour party all compounded in the publication and reception of the Beveridge report and eventual inauguration of the welfare state.

  2. The colonial factor in the Nigerian civil war (1967-1970)

    Before then, in an effort to stop the killings and to preserve the nation in one form or the other, an ad hoc conference of the representatives of the regions was called on 9 August 1966 in Lagos and the meeting came up with a number of recommendations.

  1. British History Coursework: The Irish Famine 1845-1849

    The Irish Famine was a problem which would disappear once the necessary cull had taken its course. The impoverishment of the Irish was compounded by their disempowerment; in 1845 only one in eighty-three people was entitled to vote, with the Penal Laws completely disenfranchising all Catholics: It was agreed that

  2. The Creation of the Welfare State

    'The state of children was such that the school had to be fumigated.' This quote was taken from source F, this source was an extract from reports on evacuees published by the national federation of women's institutes in 1941. Some hosts found it impossible to believe that there may be

  1. A Short History of the Basque Country.

    Later the Resistance Assembly was formed. This organization represented the Basque Government through a board inside the Basque Country. The differences with the PSOE (Spanish Workers' Socialist Party) became evident at this time when an idea proposed in 1940 was put into practice whereby all the parties comprising the Basque Government were called upon to make a declaration of nationality.

  2. To what extent has Germany's party system evolved from a multi-party system to a ...

    concerned with so called quality of life issues for example the environment, peace and nuclear disarmament. However this was all to change "after first entering the Bundestag in 1983, the Greens were soon to experience the 'parliamentary embrace' and become a more conventional political party."7 The emergence of the Green

  1. Minority Rights, Identity Politics and Gender in Bangladesh: Current Problems and Issues

    It is a region, which house part of the world's largest mangrove forests, the Sundarbans. According to the Gazette of 1978 the area covered by the Sundarbans were recorded as 2,316 square miles. This tidal plain with mangrove forests is the most complex ecosystem with the highest biological productivity in the world.

  2. The Advent of Imperialism

    and character than is required to exact these services from them or to render official services in return. The few who have made some serious attempt to penetrate into the Indian mind admit their failure to grasp with any adequacy even the rudiments of a human nature which differs, in

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work