• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

How successfully did the Conservatives manage the process of de-colonisation?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

How successfully did the Conservatives manage the process of de-colonisation? The Conservative government handled two processes of de-colonisation, Kenya and Malaysia; the latter being a selection of Southeast Asian countries grouped into a Federation for their own protection. The process of independence at the time was often marred by outbreaks of violence and resulted in political instability due to religious, racial or tribal differences. There are numerous examples, such as India (handled by a labour government in 1948) where religious differences resulted in up to 500,000 deaths, and many wars over disputed territory, such as Congo which suffered vicious fighting after having Independence granted by the Belgians in the late 1950's. Therefore when considering the successfulness of the Conservatives at de-colonisation this must be kept in mind. Problems for the Conservatives arose first in Kenya where protests began over land ownership and more local representation on the Legislative Council. Kenya held a white population of over 30,000 when the protests and demonstrations began in 1951. The white farmers held the best land and prohibited blacks from owning it. ...read more.

Middle

With this in mind, preparation for independence was inevitable, with the intermediate stage of setting up an internal self-government. The resulting free election inevitably gave power to Jomo Kenyatta and, with MacMillan already admitting that "nothing could be gained by delay, everything might be won by a sign of confidence", full independence came just three years later. The speed of this political transformation certainly ensured that relations between Kenya and Britain would remain constructive for many years to come, but it must have contributed to Kenya's poor economic state, with wide-scale poverty, political arrests and human rights abuses. Some have argued that if some power had been retained by Britain a gentle transition to full independence may have caused less problems. For example, some assistance in the form of establishing a competent civil service, or the arrangement of favourable loans, might have given the newly independent Kenya some hope of avoiding the political and economic upheaval that occurred in the aftermath of independence. However, it should be emphasised that the Conservatives' concern lay not with the Kenyans or white farmers but instead with its world reputation. ...read more.

Conclusion

Britain sent troops to Malaya to protect its borders and, within three years, Indonesia had given up its territorial claims, although Singapore had by then left the Federation. As with Kenya, the Conservatives realised that Britain could no longer afford to protect its overseas colonies. As a secondary world power it could not stem the tide of communism - only the USA might have the military power to do so. In living up to its pledge to ensure the security of Malaya it acted with integrity and earned the respect of these post-independence colonial states. However, Britain realised that its trading future lay in Europe, even if it continued to maintain links in the Far East through the Commonwealth. An orderly withdrawal must surely have been better than a rout? In conclusion, the process of de-colonisation in Kenya and Malaya did not unduly damage Britain's international reputation. Although it often put its own interests first, whether military, strategic, or economic, before making any decision, it had to adjust to a changing world where Russia and the USA would be the new super powers and Britain would simply play a walk-on role. Ian Chandler ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Politics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Politics essays

  1. "The Colonisation of Africa was Inevitable in the Late Nineteenth Century" Discuss.

    foreign goods, which further decreased the number of markets for European goods. In order to evade social unrest at home (in particular in Great Britain because of non-resistant small family firms), due to the potential increase of unemployment, because of the potential necessity of decreasing industrial output, new markets had to be found.

  2. INquisitorial Indonesia

    In Indonesia there are no set rules of evidence, it is merely assumed that judges are competent to evaluate hearsay evidence and assess its reliability. Relevance is the sole criterion for determining the admissibility of evidence and judges ten to allow most material evidence and decide on its merit at a later point.

  1. How and why did Federation occur?

    All non-white immigrants were given a test in any European language. They had to pass to be allowed to stay in Australia. * Japan objected to WAP. They believed that they were superior to other Asian nations and should be treated differently.

  2. Assess the Extent to which the Different Powers Prepared 'Their' African Colonies for Independence.

    Unlike Nigeria, Botswana did not deal with foreign affairs but worked on internal issues such as racial tolerance which led the way for attracting a young black talented workforce from apartheid South Africa. Along with this Botswana was lucky in that it only had one main ethnic group and therefore there was less social tensions.

  1. The development of nationalist movements in Southeast Asia

    Education given to the priyayis made them realise the oppressive nature of Dutch rule as they soon became very discontented with discrimination in terms of low salaries, few opportunities for promotion and the avenues to bureaucratic employment or teaching positions were inadequate.

  2. Democratic Processes.

    These MP's have the right to vote against or for proposed laws that the government wants to introduce into society as law. They also have the right to argue on issues that are raised in the 'House of Commons' where these discussions take place.

  1. The Uk policy making process.

    can be sent to the MP who asked the question, and hence Ministers do become aware over time that an issue is emerging because they start to have signing answers to Written Questions. Debates Again, we are now used to seeing excerpts from parliamentary debates on television, although in fact the House of Commons has only been televised since 1989.

  2. Examine the impact that independence had economically, socially, and politically in Indonesia.

    The colonialism left 93% of the population illiterate, only a hundred Indonesian physicians, less than a hundred Indonesian engineers, and only ten agricultural experts. (350 Years of Colonialism, http://www.workers.org/indonesia/chap3.html, March 19, 2003.) With such few highly educated people in the country, ignorance was plentiful in Indonesia, during the colonial system and right after it was abolished.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work